Port and Shipping Express Management: The Challenges Faced by West and Central Africa in This Century


Shipping industry has become more capital intensive, technically more demanding and subject to major global regulatory reforms. As a consequence, the number of African shipping lines has been severely reduced. International trade of the WCA countries remains weak, limited to 30% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the port and shipping convey management in the WCA region, and of course to describe what has been achieved since then and what still have to be done to better its infrastructures and port community.

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R. Fouda, "Port and Shipping Express Management: The Challenges Faced by West and Central Africa in This Century," Open Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 294-297. doi: 10.4236/ojapps.2012.24043.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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