Occurrence of fluoride in the drinking waters of Langtang area, north central Nigeria


The aim of the study is to assess the occurrence of fluoride in the drinking water sources of Langtang area. Out of the thirty seven water samples collected from drinking water sources (hand dug wells, boreholes, streams and a spring) and analysed. Results revealed that except for fluoride, all other parameters are within the World Health Organisation recommended limits for water consumption. Fluoride in the waters ranges from 0.12 - 10.30 mg/l with a mean of 2.42 mg/l. low levels of fluoride are recorded in the stream samples. However, no clear variations in fluoride content have been observed in both the borehole samples and those from the hand dug wells. Negative correlation exhibited between fluoride and sulphate, fluoride and Phosphate and the poor correlation between fluoride and nitrate, fluoride and chloride rules out the possibility of anthropogenic source of the fluoride in the waters. Positive correlation between lithium and magnesium, and poor but positive correlation between fluoride and lithium indicate that micas within the host rock and the pegmatite may be responsible for leaching fluoride into the waters. Two of the major water types; Ca + Mg-HCO3 and the Na + K-HCO3 water type obtain in the area have good association with fluoride content. Consumption of high fluoride waters clearly manifests in the inhabitant of the area in form of dental fluorosis and bowing of legs especially in children between the ages 7 - 11 years.

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Dibal, H. , Schoeneich, K. , Garba, I. , Lar, U. and Bala, E. (2012) Occurrence of fluoride in the drinking waters of Langtang area, north central Nigeria. Health, 4, 1116-1126. doi: 10.4236/health.2012.411169.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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