Working Properties of Some Selected Refractory Clay Deposits in South Western Nigeria


Working properties of some clay deposits in Ekiti State, Nigeria were investigated with a view to determine their suitability for use as refractory bricks. The samples were collected from three different commercial pottery clay centers in Ekiti State; they are Ara, Awo and Isan. Two varieties were collected from both Ara and Isan, which are named Ara 1, Ara 2, and Isan 1, Isan 2 respectively while only one type was collected from Awo. The clay samples were crushed, pulverized, sieved and their chemical compositions were determined. The clay samples were treated separately as well as blended together in different proportions and moulded into bricks. The bricks were dried and fired to 1050℃. Tests for refractoriness, thermal shock resistance, shrinkage, thermal expansion; bulk density, porosity, and compressive strength were carried out on each batch specimen. The results showed that Ara 2 and Ara 1, 2 combined in equal proportions displayed the highest thermo chemical stability. They also possess comparatively high cold crushing strength, and high thermal shock resistance, but definitely not the highest. The apparent porosity of all the batch specimens was found to be high as well as the bulk densities, while the shrinkage of all the specimens were low. It was concluded that 100% Ara 2, and a blend of Ara 1 and 2 in equal proportions, are most suitable for production of crucibles, and furnace lining for non ferrous metals processing, such as Aluminium, Lead and Bronze.

Share and Cite:

J. Omotoyinbo and O. Oluwole, "Working Properties of Some Selected Refractory Clay Deposits in South Western Nigeria," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 7 No. 3, 2008, pp. 233-245. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2008.73018.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ryan.W. (1978) “ Clay and Glazes for Potter” Pitman, London
[2] Chesti. A.R (1986) “ Refractories: Manufacture, Properties and Applications Prentice –Hall,New Delhi. p.155
[3] Balogun, S.A, Olubode, J.A and Aderibigbe, D.A (1980), “ Working properties of some Nigerian synthetic moulding sands” Nigerian Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3:39-57
[4] Balogun, S.A and Adepoju, O.T (1983) “ Effect of some additives on some moulding properties of a Nigerian moulding sand” Nigerian Journal of Engineering and Technology,5:61-68
[5] Obikwelu, O.N. (1987), “Viability of local clays for the manufacture of refractories for steel and allied industries” Proceedings of the annual conference of the Nigerian Metallurgical Society
[6] Hassan, S.B and Afewara, J.O.T (1994), “Refractory properties of some Nigerian clays” NSE Technical Transactions, 29(3), 13-19
[7] Loto, C.A and Akeju, E.A (1994) “Durability of Igbokoda clay and silica sand as a synthetic moulding material” NSE Technical Transaction, 29(3), 21-27
[8] Onyemaobi, O.O, Omotoyinbo, J.A and Borode, J.O (1995) “ Suitability of some local clays as refractory materials” Annual conference of the Science Association of Nigeria., University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
[9] Ibitoye, S.A and Afonja, A.A (1997a) “ Adaptation of Ipetumodu potter’s clay to foundry use:1. Moulding properties of as mined and silica mixed potter’s clay.” Ife Journal of Technology,7(1):17-22
[10] Ibitoye, S.A and Afonja, A.A (1997b) “ Adaptation of Ipetumodu potter’s clay to foundry use:2.Development of potter’s clay bound synthetic moulding sand.” Ife Journal of Technology, 7(1):39-45
[11] Omotoyinbo, J.A, Onyemaobi, O.O and Borode, J.O (1997) “ Effects of potter’s clay additive on the moulding properties of Igbokoda silica sand” Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science, 3(3): 341-351
[12] Jain, P.L (1979) “Principle of foundry technology. 2nd Edition.McGrawHill, New Delhi p.325
[13] Rhodes, D (1979) “Clay and Glazes for potter” Pitman Publishers, London
[14] Beely, P.R (1982) Foundry Technology, 3rd Edition. Butterworth, London p.544
[15] Dehlinger, G (2000) Science Vol.290 p.227
[16] Green, M.A (2001) Nature Vol.412, p.805
[17] Homewood, K. (2005) Materials Today, 8(1)p.34
[18] Jastrzebski, D.Z. (1982) “The nature and properties of Engineering Materials” 2nd Edition.pp.338-343
[19] Hlavac, J. (1983) “The Technology of Glass and Ceramics, An Introduction” Elsevier Publishing, Amsterdam. Pp. 621
[20] Chukwuogo, C.E.B. (1984) “ Physical and Chemical Properties of some Nigerian Clays” Research and Quality Control, DSC, Warri,Nigeria.
[21] Grimshaw, R.W (1971) “ The Chemistry and Physics of Clays. 4th edition Ernest Benn Publisheers, London.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.