Evaluation of Synthetic and Natural Insecticides for the Management of Insect Pest Control of Eggplant (Solanum Melongena L.) and Pesticide Residue Dissipation Pattern


Eggplant shoot and fruit borer (ESFB), Leucinodes orbonalis G. is a key pest of eggplant, Solanum melongena L. Organophosphates (OP) having high toxicity and persistence are used to control the pests in many developing countries, despite availability of new insecticides with better qualities. Field evaluation of thiacloprid and indoxacarb were carried out against ESFB, with an OP insecticide, methyl parathion. Two Bacillus thuriegensis (Bt) based formulations namely Biolep and PUSA Bt and two azadirachtin formulations namely Neem Seed Kernal Extract (NSKE) and Nimbo Bas were also evaluated against ESFB for the management of the pest. HPLC and GC methods for the estimation of indoxacarb, thiacloprid and methyl parathion from the fruits were developed and their dissipation patterns and safety parameters were compared. For indoxacarb, the method involving Florisil gave highest recovery (88%) whereas average recoveries of other methods varied from 59% to 82%. The mean initial deposits of indoxacarb on fruits were 2.60 mg/kg to 3.64 mg/kg and 2.63 mg/kg to 3.68 mg/kg from 75 and 150 g·ai/ha treatments from two-year field studies. The half-life of indoxacarb was 3.0 d - 3.8 d from both years. The Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (TMDI) was found to be 0.446 mg/person/day to 0.643 mg/person/day for day-1 residues which is in par with the Maximum Permissible Intake (MPI) of 0.6 mg/person/day. The TMDI from 3 d residues was found to be less than the MPI calculated with the data of 3 d residues which ensures better margin of safety. For thiacloprid, the method involving Florisil gave highest recovery (89%). The mean initial deposits of thiacloprid on fruits were 3.39 to 5.40 mg/kg and 3.40 to 5.39 mg/kg from 30 and 60 g·ai/ha treatments from both years. The half-life values were determined to be 11.1 and 11.6 d for both years. The TMDI from maximum residues observed for first day for both the treatments during first year trials was found to be 0.682 to 1.098 mg person/day, which was higher than the MPI of 0.72 mg/person/day, which proved that the application is toxic to humans. Thiacloprid at the experimented doses (30 and 60 g·ai/ha) was found not effective to manage ESFB and was not safe for human consumption after a waiting period of 3 days. For methyl parathion, the method involving Florisil gave highest average recovery (89%). The initial residues on fruits from recommended dose declined from 3.60 to 3.12 mg/kg in one day and 0.27 mg/kg in twentyfive days from 100 g·ai/ha. Similar pattern was observed with higher dose also. The dissipation rate constants were 0.123 and 0.140 for 100 and 200 g·ai/ha treatments, respectively. The half life values ranged from 6.0 to 7.4 days. Using dose (100 g·ai/ha), the residues reached safe level only after 20 days. A minimum gap of 20 days after the last application of the insecticide to the harvest is impractical for this crop. The efficacy of methyl parathion against ESFB was good at lower dose, but due to its toxic residue profile there is a high health risk. Biolep at both doses were not effective against ESFB, however PUSA Bt gave better control against ESFB at similar dose. NSKE was found effective against ESFB, however NimboBas found to be non-effective against ESFB.

Share and Cite:

J. Saimandir and M. Gopal, "Evaluation of Synthetic and Natural Insecticides for the Management of Insect Pest Control of Eggplant (Solanum Melongena L.) and Pesticide Residue Dissipation Pattern," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2012, pp. 214-227. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.32026.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. S. Sidhu and A. S. Dhatt, “International Conference on Indigenous Vegetables and Legumes-Prospectus for Fighting Poverty, Hunger and Malnutrition: Current Status of Brinjal Research in India,” ISHS Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 752, 2007, pp. 243-248.
[2] K. Matsubara, T. Kaneyuki, T. Miyake and M. Mori, “Antiangiogenic Activity of Nasunin, an Antioxidant Anthocyanin in Eggplant Peels,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 16, 2005, pp. 6272-6275. doi:10.1021/jf050796r
[3] G. Oboh, M. M. Ekperigin and M. I. Kazeem, “Nutritional and Hemolytic Properties of Eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon) Leaves,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 18, No. 2-3, 2005, pp. 153-160. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2003.12.013
[4] M. S. Rahman, M. Z. Alam, M. Haq, N. Sultana and K. S. Islam, “Effect of Some Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Packages against Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer,” Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 7, 2002, pp. 489-491.
[5] M. Schuld and R. Schmuck, “Effects of Thiacloprid, a New Chloronicotinyl Insecticide on the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma cacaoeciae,” Ecotoxicology, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2000, pp. 197-205. doi:10.1023/A:1008994705074
[6] P. J. Charmillot, D. Pasquier, C. Grela, M. Genini, R. Olivier, C. Ioriatti and A. Butturini, “Resistance of Carprocapsid Cydia pomonella to Insecticides,” Arboriculture et Horticulture, Vol. 35, 2003, pp. 363-368.
[7] Z. Puciennik, R. W. Olszak and U. Tworkowska, “Assessment of the Efficacy of Selected Insecticides in Controlling the Plum Fruit Moth (Laspeyresia funebrana),” Zeszyty Naukowe Instytutu Sadownictwai Kwiaciarstwaw Skierniewicach, Vol. 11, 2003, pp. 125-128.
[8] M. D. Doerr, J. F. Brunner and L. E. Schrader, “Integrated Pest Management Approach for a New Pest, Lacanobia subjuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Washington Apple Orchards,” Pest Management Science, Vol. 60, No. 10, 2004, pp. 1025-1034. doi:10.1002/ps.912
[9] B. H. Labanowska and Z. Partyka, “Monitoring and Control of currant Clearwing Moth (Synanthedon tipuliformis) on Black Currant,” Journal of Plant Protection Research, Vol. 44, 2004, pp. 929-932.
[10] B. H. Labanowska, C. Linder and J. V. Cross, “Pest Control in Blackcurrant in Poland Using the New Neonicotinoid, Thiacloprid as Calypso 480 SC,” Bulletin of International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, Vol. 27, 2004, pp. 101-106.
[11] J. Stará J and F. Kocourek, “Insecticidal Resistance and Cross-Resistance in Populations of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Central Europe,” Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 100, No. 5, 2007, pp. 1587-1595. doi:10.1603/0022-0493(2007)100[1587:IRACIP]2.0.CO;2
[12] M. Tomizawa and J. E. Casida, “Neonicotinoid Insecticide Toxicology: Mechanisms of Selective Action,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vol. 45, 2004, pp. 247-268.
[13] K. D. Wing, M. Sacher, Y. Kagaya, Y. Tsurubuchi, L. Mulderig, M. Connair and M. Schnee, “Bioactivation and Mode of Action of the Oxadiazine Indoxacarb in Insects,” Crop Protection, Vol. 19, No. 8-10, 2000, pp. 537-545. doi:10.1016/S0261-2194(00)00070-3
[14] X. P. Hu, “Evaluation of Efficacy and Non-Repellency of Indoxacarb and Fipronil-Treated Soil at Various Concentrations and Thicknesses against Two Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae),” Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 98, No. 2, 2005, pp. 509-517. doi:10.1603/0022-0493-98.2.509
[15] F. R. Musser and A. M. Shelton, “Bt Sweet Corn and Selective Insecticides: Impacts on Pests and Predators,” Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 96, 2003, pp. 71-80. doi:10.1603/0022-0493-96.1.71
[16] J. Z. Zhao, Y. X. Li, H. L. Collins, L. Gusukuma-Minuto, R. F. L. Mau, G. D. Thompson and A. M. Shelton, “Monitoring and Characterization of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Resistance to Spinosad,” Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 95, No. 2, 2002, pp. 430-436. doi:10.1603/0022-0493-95.2.430
[17] C. L. Barr, “Fire Ant Mound and Foraging Suppression by Indoxacarb Bait,” Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2003, pp. 143-150.
[18] A. G. Appel, “Laboratory and Field Performance of an Indoxacarb Bait against German Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae),” Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 96, No. 3, 2003, pp. 863-870. doi:10.1603/0022-0493-96.3.863
[19] S. F. McCann, G. D. Annis, R. Shapiro, D. W.Piotrowski, G. P. Lahm, J. K. Long, K. C. Lee, M. M. Hughes, B. J. Myers, S. M. Griswold, B. M. Reeves, R. W. March, P. L. Sharpe, P. Lowder, W. E. Barnette and K. D. Wing, “The Discovery of Indoxacarb: Oxadiazines as a New Class of Pyrazoline-Type Insecticides,” Pest Management Science, Vol. 57, No. 2, 2001, pp. 153-164. doi:10.1002/1526-4998(200102)57:2<153::AID-PS288>3.0.CO;2-O
[20] C. Kao, C. Hung and C. Sun, “Parathion and Methyl Parathion Resistance in Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Larvae,” Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 82, No. 5, 1989, pp. 1298-1304.
[21] T. V. Prasad, “Development of Water Dispersible Powder (WDP) Formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Its Effect on Detoxification Enzymes of Helicoverpa armigera Hubner,” Ph.D. Thesis, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 2003.
[22] J. Saimandir, “Evaluation of Pesticide Residues on Eggplant, Solanum melongena L. Subjected to Plant Protection Measures for Control of Shoot and Fruit Borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen.,” Ph.D. Thesis, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 2005.
[23] W. M. Hoskins, “Mathematical Treatment of LOSS of Pesticide Residues,” Food and Agriculture Organization Plant Protection Bulletin, Vol. 9, 1961, pp. 163-168.
[24] M. Gopal and I. Mukherjee, “MRL of Fenvalerate, HCH and Endosulfan on Chickpea,” Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, Vol. 3, 1995, pp. 105 109.
[25] J. Saimandir and M. Gopal, “Analysis of Indoxacarb Applied for Managing Shoot and Fruit Borer, Leucinodes orbonalis G. of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and Its Decontamination by Chemicals,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B. Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes, Vol. 44, 2009, pp. 292-301.
[26] P. Subbian, K. Annadurai and S. P. Palaniappan, “Agriculture, Facts and Figures,” Kalyani Publishers Ltd, New Delhi, 2000.
[27] S. Sinha and M. Gopal, “Evaluating the Safety of Beta-Cyfluthrin Insecticide for Usage in Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Crop,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 68, No. 3, 2002, pp. 400-405. doi:10.1007/s001280268
[28] C. D. S. Tomlin, “The Pesticide Manual, 7th Edition, A World Compendium,” British Crop Protection Council, Hampshire, 2006.
[29] Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2008. http://www.codexalimentarius.net/mrls/servlet/pesticides/jsp/pest_q-e.j&p
[30] W. M. Hoskins, “Mathematical Treatment of Loss of Pesticide Residues,” Food and Agriculture Organization Plant Protection Bulletin, Vol. 9, 1961, pp. 163-168.
[31] Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPP/Pesticid/JMPR/Download/2006_rep/Thiacloprid.pdf
[32] WHO (World Health Organization), “Guidelines for Predicting Dietary Intake of Pesticide Residues,” Program of Food Safety and Food Aid, Geneva, Switzerland, 1997.
[33] S. Jayakrishnan, M. Gopal and S. Walia, “Risk Assessment of Thiacloprid and Its Chemical Decontamination from Eggplant, Solanum melongena L.,” Pest Management Science, Vol. 65, No. 2, 2009. pp. 210-215. doi:10.1002/ps.1670
[34] Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization, “Acceptable Daily Intakes, Acute Reference Doses, Short-Term and Long-Term Dietary Intakes, Recommended Maximum Residue Limits and Supervised Trials Median Residue Values,” Geneva, Switzerland, 2005.
[35] J. Saimandir, A. K. Dikshit, J. P. Singh and D. C. Pachauri, “Dissipation of Lambda-Cyhalothrin on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and Removal of Its Residues by Different Washing Processes and Steaming,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 75, No. 2, 2005. pp. 324-328. doi:10.1007/s00128-005-0756-2
[36] N. K. Roy, “Chemistry of Pesticide, First Edition,” Cbs Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi, India, 2002.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.