The Origins of Bosons and Fermions


This paper proposes that all Bosons and all Fermions originate from even more elementary constituents, which called Spin Angular Momentum Vacuum (SAMV). SAMV is filled with Primitive Spin Particles (PSP). The total square spin angular momentum of each PSP is negative, less than zero. Those PSP labeled by index  of Casimir Operator, are called Vacuum Spin Particle (VSP), which could be contracted into so-called Vacuum Bubbles (VB). VB are identical bubbles, are "sub-observable physical quantities". VB are paired up into Vacuum Bubble Pair VBP. VSP ωj(or ω+-) results from Self-identical vacuum bubble interaction  through the zero order Phase Transition PT. When the 1st, 2nd, 3rd,... order PT of VBP occur,  then VBP turn into Bosons and Fermions, excited out of sea level of SAMV ocean.

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Ren, S. (2014) The Origins of Bosons and Fermions. Journal of Modern Physics, 5, 1848-1879. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2014.517181.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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