Spatial Variations of Particle-Bound Trace Metals in Ambient Air of Selected Niger Delta Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria


The objective of this study was to determine the spatial variation of particle-bound heavy metals in two communities with different industrial status in Nigeria’s Niger Delta Area. Fourteen ambient respirable particulate matter (PM10) samples 7 each from Eleme (highly industrialized) and Ahoada East (less industrialized) communities were collected according to standard methods using Anderson High volume sampler. Samples were analyzed for trace metals including Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Man Whitney U test and Spearman Rank Correlation all at P < 0.05. PM10 levels were 1.83 times higher at Eleme than Ahoada East (P < 0.05) and all the values were higher than both the USEPA and WHO limits. At Eleme spatial variation of PM10 was in the following order: APE5 > APE3 > APE7 > APE1 > APE4 > APE6 > APE2. Fe, Zn and Cd were higher at Eleme than Ahoada East and the EC/WHO values. Pb was poorly correlated with PM10 (r2 = 0.0819, P > 0.05) at Eleme. Communities with higher industrial presence in the Niger Delta are more exposed to particulate burden. Routine monitoring and strict adherence to regulatory limits must be enforced.

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G. Ana, M. Sridhar and J. Nriagu, "Spatial Variations of Particle-Bound Trace Metals in Ambient Air of Selected Niger Delta Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 1502-1509. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.412172.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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