Pollution Tolerance of Smoke in the Distribution of Neurotransmitter Enzyme (Acetylcholine Esterase) and Total Cholesterol in Tissues of Wistar Rats
A. C. Achudume, F. Aina, B. Onibere
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.14055   PDF    HTML     6,095 Downloads   10,815 Views   Citations


This study was designed to assess total animal exposure to non-occupational but environmentally induced smoke through short-term landfill burning toxicity tests at the biochemical levels. Exposure to municipal land-fill burning using rat model focused primarily on inhalation exposure. The environmental monitoring consisted of 60 days exposure to refuse burning by evaluating the level of protein concentrations, neurotransmitter enzyme acetylcholine esterase (AcHE), and total cholesterol in different tissues of Wistar rats. Protein concentrations tended to decrease in the brain, liver and kidney and slightly increased in the plasma while acetylcholine esterase decreased in brain and liver and increased in the kidney. The non-depletion in total cholesterol levels in the tissues tended to be due to active mobilization towards tissue metabolism. The data were sufficient to support risk assessment for human.

Share and Cite:

A. Achudume, F. Aina and B. Onibere, "Pollution Tolerance of Smoke in the Distribution of Neurotransmitter Enzyme (Acetylcholine Esterase) and Total Cholesterol in Tissues of Wistar Rats," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 1 No. 4, 2010, pp. 475-479. doi: 10.4236/jep.2010.14055.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Environmental News Service Network, “Environmental Pollution in India,” 2008, pp. 1-5.
[2] G. T. Miller, “Living in the Environment: An Introduction to Environmental Science,” Wads Worth, Belmont, 1990.
[3] O. Taiwo, “The State of Urban Air Pollution in Lagos: Crisis of Management,” Lagos Metropolitant Area Transport Authority (LAMATA) Bulletin, 2005, pp. 1-2.
[4] J. Zhang and K. R. Smith, “Household Air Pollution from Coal and Biomass Fuels in China: Measurement, Health Impacts and Interventions,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 115, No. 6, 2007, pp. 848-855.
[5] K. R. Smith, “Health Impacts of Household Fuel Wood Use in Developing Countries: Forest and Human Health,” Inhalation Toxicology, Vol. 19, 2007, pp. 67-106.
[6] P. Wilkinson, K. Smith, M. Joffe and A. Haines, “A Global Perspective on Energy: Health Effects and Injuries,” The Lancet, Vol. 370, No. 9591, 2007, pp. 965-978.
[7] A. I. Osakwe, “Fake, Counterfeit, Adulterated, Substandard and Unwholesome Products: What is in Name?” NAFDAC Consumer Safety Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2003, pp. 7-17.
[8] L. S. Laxman and B. S. Rao, “Biosorption/Bioremedia- tion of Heavy Metals,” In: Role of Microbes in the Management of Environmental Pollution, APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 2001, pp. 89-93.
[9] S. Myllyta and K. Kuvaja, “Societal Premises for Sustainable Development in Large Southern Cities,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 15, 2005, pp. 224-237.
[10] J. M. Antonini and J. R. Roberta, “Chronium in Stainless Steel Welding Fume Suppresses Lung Defense Responses against Bacterial Infection in Rats,” Journal of Immunotoxicol, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2007, pp. 117-127.
[11] H. R. Anderson and D. G. Cook, “Passive Smoking and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence,” Thorax, Vol. 52, 1997, pp. 1003-1009.
[12] D. G. Cook and D. P. Strachan, “Parental Smoking and Prevalence of Respiratory Symptoms and Asthma in School Age Children,” Thorax, Vol. 52, No. 12, 1997, pp. 1081-1094.
[13] D. P. Strachan and D. G. Cook, “Parental Smoking and Lower Respiratory Illness in Infancy and Early Childhood,” Thorax, Vol. 52, No. 10, 1997, pp. 905-914.
[14] International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). “Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals on Humans-Tobacco Smoking and Tobacco Smoke,” Vol. 83, 2002. http://monographs.iarc.fr/htdocs/ monographs/vol/83/01-smoking.html
[15] H. Kuhnen, “Effects of Monopyridinium Compounds on the Activity of Bovine Red Cell Acetylcholineesterase,” Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 25, 1973, pp. 94-100.
[16] M. Aebi, “Catalase in Vitro,” Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 105, 1984, pp. 121-126.
[17] R. H. Dhindsa, R. Plumb-Dhinda and T. A. Thorpe, “Leaf Senescence Correlated with Increased Level of Membrane Permeability, Lipid Peroxidation and Decreased Level of SOD and CAT,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 32, No. 126, 1981, pp. 93-101.
[18] C. Foyer and B. Halliwell, “The Presence of Glutathione and Glutathione Reductase in Chloroplasts: A Proposed Role in Ascorbic Acid Metabolism,” Planta, Vol. 133, 1976, pp. 21-25.
[19] L. L. Abell, S. B. Levy, B. B. Brodie and A. Kendall, “A Simplified Method for the Estimation of Cholesterol in Serum and Its Specificity,” Journal of Biology and Chemistry, Vol. 196, 1962, pp. 366-367.
[20] C. M. Walker and M. T. Mackness, “‘A’ Esterases and Their Role in Regulating the Toxicity of Organophosphates,” Archives of Toxicology, Vol. 60, 1987, pp. 30-33.
[21] K. V. Murthy, M. Bhaskar and S. Govindappa, “Studies on Lipid Profile of Fish Liver on Acclimation to Acidic Medium,” Journal of Environmental Biology, Vol. 15, 1994, pp. 269-273.
[22] D. V. Muley, D. M. Karanjkar and S. V. Maske, “Impact of Industrial Effluents on the Biochemical Composition of Fresh Water Fish Labeo Rotita,” Journal of Environmental Biology, Vol. 28, 2007, pp. 245-249.
[23] L. Guihermino, P. Barros, S. Amadeu and M. V. M. Soares, “Should the Use of Inhibition of Cholinesterase As a Specific Biomarker for Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides Be Questioned?” Biomarker, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1998, pp. 157-163.
[24] O. Makay, C. Yenisey, G. Icoz, N. Genc Simsek, G. Ozgen, M. Akyildiz and E. Yetkin, “The Role of Allopurinol on Oxidative Stress in Experimental Hyperthyroidism,” Journal of Endocrinology Investment, Vol. 32, No. 8, 2009, pp. 641-646.
[25] R. Shi, C. C. Huang, R. S. Aronstem, N. Ercal, A. Martin and Y. W. Huang, “N-Acetylcystein Amide Decreases Oxidative Stress But Not Cell Death Induced by Doxo- rubin in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes,” BMC Pharmacology, Vol. 15, No. 9, 2009, pp. 7-12.
[26] M. A. Matin and K. Hussain, “Cerebral Glycogenolysis and Glycolysis in Malathion-Treated Hyperglycaemic Animals,” Biochemical Pharmacology, Vol. 36, 1987, pp. 1815-1817.
[27] T. Aosaki, M. Miura, T. Suzuki, K. Nishimura and M. Masuda, “Acetylcholine-Dopamine Balance Hypothesis in the Striatum: An Update,” Geriatrics and Gerontology International, Vol. 10, 2010, pp. 5148-5157.
[28] B. E. Jones, “From Waking to Sleeping: Neuronal and Chemical Substrates,” Trends Pharmacology Science, Vol. 26, No. 11, pp. 578-586.
[29] K. S. P. Rao, K. R. S. Rao, I. K. A. Sahib and K. V. R. Rao, “Combined Action of Carbary and Penthoate on Tissue Lipid Derivative of Muscle of Channa Punctatus (Bloch),” Ecotoxicology Environmental Safety, Vol. 9, 1985, pp. 107-111.
[30] A. C. Achudume, “Environmental Health, Development and Economic Empowerment of Rural Women in Nigeria,” Environment Development and Sustainability, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 459-469.
[31] A. K. Hackshaw, M. R. Law and N. J. Wald, “The Accumulated Evidence on Lung Cancer and Environmental Tobacco Smoke,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7114, 1994, pp. 980-988.
[32] J. T. Taylor, E. Davis, P. Dabisch, M. Horsmon, K. Matson, C. Crouse and R. Mioduszewski, “Acute Toxic Effects of Inhaled Dichlorvus Vapour on Respiratory Mechanics and Blood Cholinesterase Activity in Guinea Pigs,” Inhalation Toxicology, Vol. 20, 2008, pp. 465-472.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.