Contrasting Historical and Recent Breakup Styles on the Meade River of Arctic Alaska in the Context of a Warming Climate
Richard A. Beck, Kenneth M. Hinkel, Wendy R. Eisner, Douglas Whiteman, Christopher D. Arp, Richard Machida, Chris Cuomo, Hongxing Liu, Changjoo Kim, Andrew J. Rettig, Chantal Ivenso, Bo Yang, Qiusheng Wu, Haibin Su, Shujie Wang, Karen Frey, John D. Lenters, Brittany L. Potter
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, Atqasuk, USA.
Department of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, USA.
Department of Geography, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, USA.
Department of GeogSchool of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Lincoln, USA raphy, Clark University, Worcester, USA;.
Department of Philosophy, University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
Department of Physics and Geosciences, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, USA.
Information Technology, University of Alaska at Fairbanks, Fairbanks, USA.
School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Lincoln, USA.
Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, USA.
DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.22016   PDF    HTML   XML   5,658 Downloads   8,448 Views   Citations


Although data for temporal spring river ice breakup are available for a number of Arctic rivers, there is a paucity of information related to the type of breakup. The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) of 2005 predicted a transition from mechanical to thermal spring breakup of ice cover on arctic rivers, with this shift being greatest in exclusively Arctic watersheds where observed warming is most pronounced. We describe a rare instance of an entirely Arctic river with limited but well documented historical and recent data regarding the type of breakup. Time-series ground imagery of spring breakup from 1966, 1975, 1978, 2009, 2010 and 2012, incombination with interviews of local inhabitants, documents a shift from predominantly mechanical to predominantly thermal breakup after spring 1978 and by spring 2009 within the context of a locally and regionally warming Arctic. The resultant shift from predominantly mechanical to predominantly thermal breakup is predicted to result in significant changes to water, sediment, nutrient and organic carbon fluxes, as well as riparian ecology and human activities.

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R. Beck, K. Hinkel, W. Eisner, D. Whiteman, C. Arp, R. Machida, C. Cuomo, H. Liu, C. Kim, A. Rettig, C. Ivenso, B. Yang, Q. Wu, H. Su, S. Wang, K. Frey, J. Lenters and B. Potter, "Contrasting Historical and Recent Breakup Styles on the Meade River of Arctic Alaska in the Context of a Warming Climate," American Journal of Climate Change, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2013, pp. 165-172. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.22016.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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