Evaluating National Socialism as a “True” Fascist Movement


The terms “Fascism” and “Nazism” are often linked, and at times they are regarded as one and the same ideology. The question raised is what is the distinction between Fascism and National Socialism or Nazism? A closer look at the ideas of fascism and National Socialism reveals certain affinities and overlaps with other ideologies, like Socialism, Liberalism and Conservatism. Fascism had many contradictory strands and despite deep unresolved tensions between ideas of race, nation and state in both National Socialism and fascism, the former is regarded as a “true” fascist movement. This article strives to ascertain the main differences and similarities between National Socialism and fascism and to ascertain if National Socialism could be considered to be a “true” fascist movement.

Share and Cite:

Nicolaides, A. (2013). Evaluating National Socialism as a “True” Fascist Movement. Advances in Historical Studies, 2, 11-16. doi: 10.4236/ahs.2013.21004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Betz, H. G. (1994). Radical right-wing populism. New York: St. Martins.
[2] Broszat, M. (1981). The hitler state. London: Longman.
[3] Bullock, A. (1962). Hitler: A study in tyranny. London: Konecky & Konecky.
[4] Carsten, F. L. (1980). The rise of fascism. London: Batsford.
[5] De Felice, R. (1977). Interpretations of fascism. Cambridge: Harvard U.P.
[6] De Ruggiero, G. (1927). The history of European liberalism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
[7] Fischer, C. J. (1978). The occupational background of the S.A.’s rank and file membership during the depression years, 1929 to mid-1934. In P. Stachura (Ed.), The shaping of the Nazi state. London: Croom Helm.
[8] Fischer, C. J. (1996). The rise of national socialism and the working classes in weimar Germany. Oxford: Berghahn Books.
[9] Gentile, G. (1928). Philosophic basis of fascism. Milan: Foreign Affairs 6.
[10] Heiden, K. (1939). One man against Europe. Penguin: Harmondsworth, Middlesex.
[11] Hitler, A. (1969). 1939 Mein Kampf. London: University of Chicago Press.
[12] Koenigsberg, R. (1975). Hitler’s ideology: A study in psychoanalytic psychology. New York: Library of Social Sciences.
[13] Laquer, W. (1979). Fascism: A readers guide. London: Routledge.
[14] Lowell Field, G. (1968). The syndical and corporative institutions of italian fascism. New York: AMS Press.
[15] Madden, P. (1987). The social class origins of Nazi party members as determined by occupations, 1919-1933. Social Science Quarterly, 68, 263-280.
[16] Mann, M. (2004). Fascists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511806568
[17] Marcuse, H. (1973). Reason and revolution. New York: Oxford University Press.
[18] Morgan, P. (2003). Italian fascism 1919-1945. New York: Taylor & Francis. doi:10.4324/9780203448229
[19] Mosse, G. L. (1966). The crisis of German ideology. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
[20] Mosse, G. L. (1978). Nazism: A historical and comparative analysis. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
[21] Nolte, E. (1969). Three faces of fascism. New York: Mentor.
[22] Pois, R. (1986). National socialism and the religion of nature. London: Croom Helm.
[23] Roberts, D. (1979). Syndicalist tradition and Italian fascism. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
[24] Rocco, A. (1982). The political doctrine of fascism. Denver: Alan Swallow.
[25] Skidelsky, R. (1975). Oswald Mosley. London: Macmillan.
[26] Smith, M. (1975). Mussolini. New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
[27] Sternhell, Z. (1994). The birth of fascist ideology. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
[28] Turner, H. A. (1975). Reappraisals of fascism. New York: New Viewpoints.
[29] Vajda, M. (1976). Fascism as a mass movement. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
[30] Woolf, S. (1968). European fascism. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.