## Description

This book is written to fulfill the requirements of the course curriculum in Basic Electrical Engineering for all the undergraduate engineering students. The text covers modules of the syllabus corresponding to basic electrical circuit, DC networks, Transient analysis, Magnetic circuit, Dc machine, Single phase AC Circuits, 3-phase AC circuits, Transformers, Single phase induction motor, Three phase induction motor, Measuring instruments, Power system and Transducer. It explains physical and mathematical aspects of the highly indispensable Basic Electrical Engineering in a very simple and lucid manner.

## Table of Content

**Chapter – 1 INTRODUCTION**

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Charge

1.2.1 Positive Charge

1.2.2 Negative Charge

1.3 Insulators, Semiconductors and Conductors

1.3.1 Insulators

1.3.2 Semiconductors

1.3.3 Conductors

1.4 Electron Flow in Conductors

1.5 Electric Circuits

1.6 Current

1.6.1 Conduction or Convention Current

1.6.2 Convection Current

1.6.3 Displacement Current

1.7 Coulomb’s Law

1.8 Electric Field

1.8.1 Electric Field Intensity (E)

1.8.2 Electric Flux Density

1.9 Electric Potential

1.9.1 Potential at a Point for a Generalized System

1.9.2 Potential Difference between Two Points

1.10 Types of Electrical Sources

1.10.1 Ideal and Practical Voltage Sources

1.10.2 Ideal and Practical Current Sources

1.10.3 Dependent and Independent Sources

1.11 Source Conversion

1.12 Electro Motive Force (E.M.F )

1.12.1 Induced E.M.F

1.12.2 Motional E.M.F

1.12.3 Faraday E.M.F

1.12.4 Simultaneously Induced E.M.F

1.13 Elements

1.13.1 Resistors

1.13.2 Inductors

1.13.3 Capacitors

1.14 Impedance, Admittance, Conductance and Susceptance

1.15 Super Conductivity

1.16 Basic Terminology Associated with a Network

1.16.1 Node

1.16.2 Branch

1.16.3 Network

1.16.4 Mesh

1.16.5 Loop

1.17 Properties of Network

1.18 Current Division Formula

1.19 Voltage Division Formula

1.20 Power

1.20.1 Power for Parallel Combination

1.20.2 Power for Series Combination

1.21 Types of Power in Electric Circuit

1.22 Rectangular and Polar Coordinate System

1.22.1 Conversion from Rectangular to Polar

1.22.2 Conversion from Polar to Rectangular

1.22.3 Properties of Vectors

1.23 Types of Load

1.23.1 Resistive Load

1.23.2 Purely Resistive Load

1.23.3 Inductive Load

1.23.4 Purely Inductive Load

1.23.5 Capacitive Load

1.23.6 Purely Capacitive Load

1.24 Electric Circuit

1.24.1 Open-circuit

1.24.2 Short-circuit

**Chapter – 2 DC NETWORKS**

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Kirchhoff’s Laws

2.2.1 First Law (Kirchhoff’s Junction Law or Nodal Analysis or KCL)

2.2.2 Second Law (Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law or Mesh Law or Mesh Analysis

or KVL)

2.2.3 Concept of Super-node

2.2.4 Concept of Super-mesh

2.3 Comparison between E.M.F. and Terminal Potential Difference

2.4 Resistances in Delta and Star

2.4.1 Transformation of Delta Resistance to Star Resistance

2.4.2 Transformation of Star Resistance to Delta Resistance

2.4.3 Delta Connection

2.4.4 Star Connection

2.5 Equal Potential Method

2.6 Superposition Theorem

2.6.1 Proof of Superposition Theorem

2.7 Thevenin’s Theorem

2.7.1 Proof of the Thevenin’s Theorem

2.7.2 General Instructions for Finding Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

2.8 Norton’s Theorem

2.8.1 Proof of Norton’s Theorem

2.9 Maxwell’s Loop Current Method

2.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

2.11 Millman’s Theorem

2.12 Substitution Theorem

2.12.1 Proof of Substitution Theorem

2.13 Compensation Theorem

2.14 Reciprocity Theorem

2.15 Tellegen’s Theorem

2.16 Insulator Breakdown Voltage

**Chapter – 3 TRANSIENT ANALYSIS**

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Transient

3.3 Transient Response in First-order Circuits

3.3.1 Transient in R-L Circuits

3.3.2 Transient in R-C Circuits

3.4 Transient Response of Second-order Circuits

3.4.1 Deriving Differential Equations for Second-order Circuits

3.4.2 Solution of Second-order Circuits

3.5 Elements of the Transient Response

3.6 Natural Response of Second-order System

3.6.1 Over-damped Solution

3.6.2 Critically-damped Solution

3.6.3 Under-damped Solution

3.7 Forced Response of Second-order System

3.8 Complete Response

3.9 Methodology for Solution of Second-order Circuits

3.10 Transient Response of Automotive Ignition Circuits

**Chapter – 4 MAGNETIC CIRCUITS**

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Hysteresis Loop

4.3 Flux

4.3.1 Electric Flux

4.3.2 Electric Flux Density

4.3.3 Magnetic Flux

4.3.4 Magnetic Flux Density

4.4 Laws of Magnetic Force

4.5 Properties of Magnetic Field

4.5.1 Magnetizing Force or Magnetic Field Intensity

4.5.2 Permeability

4.5.3 Intensity of Magnetization

4.5.4 Magnetic Susceptibility

4.5.5 Relation Connecting Permeability, Intensity of Magnetization,

Magnetizing Force and Magnetic Flux Density

4.5.6 Magnetic Potential

4.5.7 Works Law or Ampere’s Law

4.5.8 Magnetic Flux Density due to Infinite Solenoid

4.5.9 Magnetic Field Intensity for Infinite Straight Current Carrying Conductor

4.5.10 Laws of Parallel Current

4.6 Comparison of Electric Circuit and Magnetic Circuit

4.7 Hopkinson’s Leakage Coefficient

4.8 Steinmetz’s Empirical Formula for Hysteresis Loss

4.9 Different Types of Losses

4.9.1 Eddy Current Loss

4.9.2 Iron Loss

4.9.3 Copper Loss

**Chapter – 5 DC MACHINES**

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Construction of DC Machine

5.2.1 Field System

5.2.2 Armature System

5.2.3 Auxiliary System for DC Machine

5.3 Types of DC Machines

5.3.1 Separately Excited DC Machine

5.3.2 Self Excited DC Machine

5.4 Basic Principle of DC Generator

5.5 E.M.F. Equation of DC Machine (Generator and Motor)

5.6 Generator Characteristics for Shunt Generator

5.6.1 Open-circuit Characteristic of DC Shunt Generator

5.6.2 Internal Characteristic

5.7 Armature Reaction

5.8 DC Motors

5.8.1 Basic Principle

5.8.2 Properties of DC Motors

5.9 Starters

5.9.1 Three-point Starter

5.9.2 Four-point Starter

5.10 Torque of Motor and Armature Power

5.11 Frictional Lose Power (PL)

5.12 Losses in DC Machine

5.13 Properties of DC Shunt Motor

5.13.1 Mechanical Characteristic

5.13.2 Electrical Characteristics of Shunt Motors

5.13.3 Speed Control of DC Shunt Motor

5.14 Power Stage Diagram of Generator and Motor

5.15 BLDC Motors (Brushless DC)

5.15.1 Construction and Operating Principle

5.15.2 I/O Link of BLDC Motor

5.15.3 Applications of BLDC Motor

**Chapter – 6 SINGLE-PHASE AC CIRCUITS**

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Generation of AC Voltage

6.3 Properties of Alternating Quantity

6.3.1 RMS Value of Alternating Quantity

6.3.2 Average Value of Alternating Quantity

6.3.3 Form Factor for Alternating Quantity

6.3.4 Peak or Amplitude or Crest Factor for Alternating Quantity

6.3.5 AC through Resistance

6.3.6 AC through Purely Inductive Load

6.3.7 AC through Purely Capacitive Load

6.3.8 AC through Series R-L Circuit

6.3.9 AC through Series R-C Circuit

6.3.10 AC through Series R-L-C Network

6.3.11 Resonance in Series R-L-C Circuit

6.3.12 Series Resonance Curves

6.4 Admittance in Series and Parallel

**Chapter – 7 THREE-PHASE AC CIRCUITS**

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Generation of Three-phase AC

7.3 Properties of Three-phase AC Circuits

7.3.1 Delta (Δ) and Star (Y) Impedance

7.3.2 Angle between Line Voltage and Phase Current

7.3.3 Phase Sequence

7.3.4 Relation between Line Voltage/Current and Phase Voltage/Current

7.4 Power Measurement in Three-phase Systems by Wattmeter

7.4.1 3φ Power Measurement by Three Wattmeter Method

7.4.2 Power Measurement by Two Wattmeter Method (for Balanced as well as

Unbalanced Load)

7.4.3 3φ Power Measurement by Two Wattmeter Method

(for Balanced Load)

7.4.4 Three-phase Power Measurement by One Wattmeter Method

7.5 Power Factor in Terms of Wattmeter Readings

**Chapter – 8 TRANSFORMERS**

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Transformers

8.2.1 Basic Principle of Transformer on Load

8.3 Classification of Transformer

8.3.1 Core-type Transformers

8.3.2 Single-phase Shell-type Transformers

8.3.3 Three-phase Transformers

8.3.4 Step-up Transformer

8.3.5 Step-down Transformer

8.3.6 Auto Transformer

8.4 E.M.F. Equation of Single-phase Transformer

8.5 Ideal Transformer

8.5.1 Properties of Ideal Transformers

8.6 Total Copper Loss in Transformers

8.7 Relation between R_

1 and R1

8.8 Relation between R_

2 and R2

8.9 Relation between X_

1 and X1

8.10 Relation between X_

2 and X2

8.11 Output of Transformers at any Load

8.12 Efficiency of Transformer

8.13 Voltage Regulation of Transformer

8.13.1 Condition for Minimum Voltage Regulation

8.13.2 Condition for Maximum Voltage Regulation

8.14 Transformer Equivalent Circuit

8.15 Open-circuit Test of Transformer

8.16 Short-circuit Test of Transformer

8.17 Applications of Transformers

8.17.1 Impedance Matching

8.17.2 Potential Transformer and Current Transformer

**Chapter – 9 SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR**

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Basic Principles of Single-phase Induction Motor

9.2.1 Forward Rotating Torque and Backward Rotating Torque

9.2.2 Torque Slip Characteristics

9.2.3 Torque Speed Characteristics

9.3 Permanent-split Capacitor Motor

9.4 Capacitor-start Induction Motor

9.4.1 Motor Characteristics

9.4.2 Applications

9.5 Capacitor Start Capacitor Run Induction Motor (or Two-value Capacitor Motor)

9.5.1 Motor Characteristics

9.5.2 Applications

9.6 Resistance Start Split-phase Induction Motor

9.6.1 Motor Characteristics

9.6.2 Applications

9.7 Equivalent Circuit of Single-phase Induction Motor

9.7.1 Equivalent Circuit of Single-phase Induction Motor without Core Loss

9.7.2 Equivalent Circuit of Single-phase Induction Motor with Core Loss

9.8 Shaded-pole Induction Motor

9.9 Stepper Motor

9.9.1 Stepper Motor Characteristics

9.9.2 Types of Stepper Motors

9.9.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Stepper Motors

9.10 Servo Motor

9.11 Two-phase Servo Motor

9.11.1 Applications of AC Servo Motor

9.11.2 Description of AC Servo Motors

9.12 AC Commutator Motor

9.13 Compensated AC Series Motors

9.14 Universal Motors or AC Series Motor

9.14.1 Characteristics of Universal Motors

9.15 Repulsion Start Induction Motor

9.16 Single-phase Synchronous Motor

9.16.1 Reluctance-type Synchronous Motors

9.16.2 Hysteresis-type Synchronous Motor

**Chapter – 10 THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR**

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Construction of Three-phase Induction Motor

10.2.1 Stator

10.2.2 Rotor

10.3 Properties of Three-phase Induction Motor

10.3.1 Starting Torque of Three-phase Induction Motors

10.3.2 Running Torque (Tr) of Three-phase Induction Motor

10.3.3 Basic Principles of Three-phase Induction Motor

10.3.4 Slips

10.3.5 Rotor Frequency during Running Condition

10.3.6 Torque Slip and Torque Speed Characteristics

10.3.7 Condition for Maximum Starting Torque

10.3.8 Condition for Maximum Running Torque

10.3.9 Ratio of Starting Torque to Maximum (Maximum Running) Torque

10.3.10 Ratio of Full-load Torque to Maximum Torque

10.3.11 Relation between Rotor Input, Output and Copper Loss

10.3.12 Ratio of Rotor Input to Rotor Output

10.3.13 Ratio of Rotor Output to Rotor Copper Loss

10.4 Power Stage Diagram

10.5 Methods of Starting the Three-phase Induction Motor

10.5.1 Direct-on-line Type Starter

10.5.2 Primary-resistor Type Starter

10.5.3 Autotransformer Type Starter

10.5.4 Star-delta Starter

10.5.5 Rotor Resistance Type Starters for Slip-ring Motor

10.6 Speed Control of Three-phase Induction Motor

10.7 Electrical Braking Methods

10.7.1 Regenerative Braking

10.7.2 Plugging

10.7.3 Dynamic Braking

**Chapter – 11 MEASURING INSTRUMENTS**

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instrument

11.2.1 Basic Principle of PMMC Instrument

11.2.2 Torque Equation of PMMC

11.2.3 Applications of PMMC Meter

11.2.4 Advantages of PMMC Instruments

11.2.5 Disadvantages of PMMC Instruments

11.3 Single-phase Induction Type Energy Meters

11.3.1 Construction of Induction Type of Energy Meter

11.4 Moving Iron Instrument

11.4.1 Types of Moving Iron Instrument

11.4.2 Properties of Moving Iron Instruments

11.4.3 Moving Iron Instrument as Ammeter

11.4.4 Moving Iron Instrument as Voltmeter

11.5 Electro-dynamometer Type Wattmeter

11.5.1 Construction and Basic Principle of Electro-dynamometer Type

Wattmeter

11.5.2 Torque Equation for Dynamometer

11.5.3 Properties of Dynamometer

11.6 Digital Voltmeter (DVM)

11.7 Multimeter

**Chapter – 12 POWER SYSTEMS**

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Thermal Power Stations

12.2.1 Salient Features of Thermal Power Plants

12.2.2 Components of Thermal Power Plants

12.2.3 Basic Principle

12.3 Nuclear Power Stations

12.3.1 Salient Features of Nuclear Power Stations

12.3.2 Components of Nuclear Power Stations

12.3.3 Basic Principle

12.4 Hydel Power Stations

12.4.1 Salient Features of Hydroelectric Power Plants

12.4.2 Components of Hydel Power Stations

12.4.3 Basic Principle

12.5 Electrical Faults

12.5.1 Computation of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Faults in Sequence

Network

**Chapter – 13 TRANSDUCERS**

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Transducer Classification

13.2.1 Classification based on Technology

13.2.2 Classification based on Measured Value

13.2.3 Classification based on Energy

13.2.4 Classification based on Output

13.3 Resistive Transducers

13.4 Inductive Transducers

13.5 Capacitive Transducers

13.5.1 The Equivalent Circuits

13.6 Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)

13.7 Angular Displacement Transducers (SYNCHRO)

13.8 Piezoelectric Transducers

13.9 Photoelectric Transducers

13.9.1 Basic Principle

13.9.2 Classification

13.10 Hall Effect Transducers

13.11 Temperature Transducers

13.11.1 Thermocouples

13.11.2 RTD (Resistance Temperature Detectors)

13.11.3 Thermistors

13.11.4 Integrated Circuit IC Sensors

13.12 Force Transducers

13.12.1 Acceleration Transducers

13.12.2 Velocity Transducers

13.13 Torque Transducers

13.13.1 Torque Measurement by Strain Gauges

13.13.2 Torque Measurement by Inductive Transducers

13.13.3 Torque Measurement with Magnetostrictive Transducers

13.13.4 Measurement of Torque using Electronic Techniques

13.13.5 Torque Measurement by Strain Gauged Load Cells

13.13.6 Electric Torque Measurement

13.14 Signal Conversions

13.15 Analog-to-Digital Conversion

13.16 Digital-to-Analogue Conversion

**Chapter – 14 SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR**

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Basic Principle

14.3 Classification of Synchronous Machines

14.4 Construction

14.5 Induced E.M.F

14.6 Characteristics of Synchronous Generators

14.6.1 Open-circuit Characteristics or Magnetization Curve

14.6.2 Short-circuit Characteristics

14.6.3 Load Characteristics

14.6.4 Maximum Power Output for Different Values of Ra

14.7 Blondel’s Two Reaction Theory

14.7.1 Voltage Regulation

14.8 Parallel Operation of Synchronous Generators

14.9 Parallel-generator Theorem

14.10 Synchronizing Power (Ps)

**Chapter – 15 BATTERIES AND SAFETY PROTECTION**

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Primary Cells

15.3 Activity of Electrons in Chemical Reactions

15.4 Secondary Cells (Storage Cells)

15.4.1 Lead Acid Accumulators

15.4.2 Edison Nickel-Iron Alkaline Accumulators

15.4.3 Nickel-Cadmium Accumulators

15.5 Battery Construction

15.6 Battery Ratings

15.7 Special-purpose Batteries

15.8 Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis

15.9 Grouping of Cells

15.9.1 Series Grouping

15.9.2 Parallel Grouping

15.9.3 Mixed Grouping

15.10 Practical Considerations

15.11 Safety Protection

15.12 Precautions for Different Place of Work

15.12.1 Working on Overhead Lines

15.12.2 Working on Ladders

15.12.3 Replacing Blown Fuse

15.12.4 In Case of Fire

15.12.5 Preparing the Electrolyte and Battery Charging

15.13 Electric Shocks

**Chapter – 16 WIRING AND ILLUMINATION**

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Wiring

16.3 Different System of Wiring

16.3.1 Tree Systems

16.3.2 Distribution Systems

16.4 Electrical Appliances Connection Systems

16.4.1 T-connections

16.4.2 Looping Connections

16.5 Circuit Diagram of House Wirings

16.5.1 Rules for Wiring

16.6 Systems of Wiring used for Domestic Purposes

16.6.1 Cleat Wirings

16.6.2 C.T.S. Wirings

16.6.3 Lead-sheathed or Covered Wiring

16.6.4 Casing-capping Wirings

16.6.5 Conduit Pipe Wirings

16.7 Testing of Wiring

16.8 Faults likely to Occur in Wiring

16.8.1 Blown of Fuse

16.8.2 Short-circuit

16.8.3 Open-circuit

16.8.4 Leakage

16.8.5 Earthing

16.9 Indian Electricity Rules for Wiring

16.10 Calculating Current and Power of Cables

16.11 Wiring Estimation

16.12 Earthing

16.13 Types of Earthing

16.13.1 Plate Earthing

16.13.2 Pipe Earthing

16.14 Rules for Earthing

16.15 Double Earthing and its Advantages

16.16 Factors Effecting Earthing

16.17 Methods to Improve Value of Earth Resistances

16.18 Short Notes

16.19 Measurement of Earth Resistance

16.20 Illuminations

16.21 Definitions in Illumination

16.22 Properties of Good Illumination

16.23 Advantages of Good Illumination

16.24 Laws of Illumination

16.24.1 Inverse Square Law

16.24.2 Lambert’s Cosine Law

16.25 Electric Lamps

16.25.1 Incandescent Lamps

16.25.2 Luminescent or Gas Discharge Lamps

16.25.3 Carbon Arc Lamps

16.25.4 Neon Lamps

16.26 Neon Sign Tubes

16.27 Halogen Lamps

16.28 S and N Lamps

16.29 Types of Lighting Schemes

16.29.1 Design of Lighting Schemes

16.29.2 Methods of Lighting Calculations

16.30 Illumination Levels

Appendix A−Solved Model Question Papers (1−14)

Appendix B−MATLAB

Appendix C−Common Electrical Formulas

Appendix D−Definitions of Electrical Terms

Appendix E−Conversion Factors for SI Units

Appendix F

Appendix G−Electrical Quantities − Symbols and Units

Appendix H−Electrical Tables

Appendix I−Solution for Chapter-end Problems

Index

## About The Author

**Saroj K Dash**, is Professor and Head, Department of Electrical Engineering, Gandhi Institute For Technological Advancement (GITA), an affiliated College of Biju Pattnaik University of Technology. Dr. Dash has published several papers in International and National Journals. He is also a recipient of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya Memorial Prize (Gold Medal) and Union Ministry of Power Prize (Gold Medal) for two of his research papers on Multi-objective Generation Dispatch using Neuro Fuzzy Technique.

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