Share This Article:

Evaluation of Protein Concentration, Amino Acid Profile and Antinutritional Compounds in Hempseed Meal from Dioecious and Monoecious Varieties

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2836KB) PP. 14-22
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61003    4,758 Downloads   5,799 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Hempseed meal from three dioecious and three monoecious varieties has been evaluated for content and quality of the protein and for the concentration of antinutritional compounds. Hemp seeds were obtained from plants grown in two experimental fields for two consecutive years (2011-2012). For all the varieties, hempseed meal resulted in a rich source of protein (34% mean content) with an amino acid profile extremely rich in arginine and slightly poor in lysine. Differences between dioecious and monoecious varieties were observed in the content of antinutritional compounds. They were more concentrated in monoecious varieties in comparison with those dioecious. The concentration of phytic acid in hempseed meal deserves attention in both groups, being 63 and 75.4 g·kg-1 of dry matter in dioecious and monocieous varieties, respectively. The results show that, besides the recognized value of hemp oil, also the hempseed cake could find application in animal feed as a substitute of other cakes (soybean, rapeseed). From this point of view, the dioecious varieties showing lower contents of antinutritional compounds with respect to the monoecious varieties would be preferred.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Russo, R. and Reggiani, R. (2015) Evaluation of Protein Concentration, Amino Acid Profile and Antinutritional Compounds in Hempseed Meal from Dioecious and Monoecious Varieties. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 14-22. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61003.

References

[1] Karus, M., Kaup, M. and Lohmeyer, D. (2000) Study on Markets and Prices for Natural Fibres (Germany and EU). Proceedings of the 3rd International symposium—Bioresource Hemp & Other fibre Crops, Wolfsburg, Germany.
[2] Callaway, J.C. (2008) A More Reliable Evaluation of Hemp THC Levels Is Necessary and Possible. Journal of Industrial Hemp, 13, 117-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15377880802391142
[3] Johnson, P. (1999) Industrial Hemp: A Critical Review of Claimed Potentials for Cannabis sativa. Tappi Journal, 82, 113-123.
[4] Callaway, J.C. (2004) Hempseed as a Nutritional Resource: An Overview. Euphytica, 140, 65-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10681-004-4811-6
[5] Simopoulos, A.P. (2006) Evolutionary Aspects of Diet, the Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio and Genetic Variation: Nutritional Implications for Chronic Diseases. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 60, 502-507.
[6] Matthäus, B. and Brühl, L. (2008) Virgin Hemp Seed Oil: An Interesting Niche Product. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 110, 655-661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200700311
[7] Gibb, D.J., Shah, M.A., Mir, P.S. and McAllister, T.A. (2005) Effect of Full-Fat Hemp Seed on Performance and Tissue Fatty Acids of Feedlot Cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 85, 223-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/A04-078
[8] Silversides, F.G. and Lefrancois, M.R. (2005) The Effect of Feeding Hemp Seed Meal to Laying Hens. British Poultry Science, 46, 231-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0071660500066183
[9] Erasmus, U. (1999) Fats That Heal, Fats That Kill. Alive Books, Burnaby.
[10] Eriksson, M. (2007) Hemp Seed Cake as a Protein Feed for Growing Cattle. MSc Thesis, Student Report 128, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Skara. http://ex-epsilon.slu.se:8080/archive/00001725/01/Absolut_sista_versionen_av_exjobbet,_pdf.pdf
[11] Wang, X.S., Tang, C.H., Yang, X.Q. and Gao, W.R. (2008) Characterization, Amino Acid Composition and in Vitro Digestibility of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Proteins. Food Chemistry, 107, 11-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.064
[12] Odani, S. and Odani, S. (1998) Isolation and Primary Structure of a Methionine and Cystine-Rich Seed Protein of Cannabis sativa. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 62, 650-654.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.62.650
[13] Sarwar, G. (1997) The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score Method Overestimates Quality of Proteins Containing Antinutritional Factors and of Poorly Digestible Proteins Supplemented with Limiting Amino Acids in Rats. Journal of Nutrition, 127, 758-764. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/127/5/758.full.pdf
[14] Russo, R. and Reggiani, R. (2013) Variability of Antinutritional Compounds in Hempseed Meal of Italian and French Varieties. Plant, 1, 25-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.plant.20130102.13
[15] Cowieson, A.J., Acamovic, T. and Bedford, M.R. (2004) The Effects of Phytase and Phytic Acid on the Loss of Endogenous Amino Acids and Minerals from Chickens. British Poultry Science, 45, 101-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071660410001668923
[16] Hassank, I.A.G., Elzubeir, E.A. and El Tinay, A.H. (2003) Growth and Apparent Absorption of Minerals in Broiler Chicks Fed Diets with Low or High Tannin Contents. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 35, 189-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022833820757
[17] Larbier, M. and Leclercq, B. (1994) Nutrition and Feeding of Poultry. Nottingham University Press, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough.
[18] Sharif, M., Idrees, N.A., Tauqir, M.A., Shahzad, M.F., Khalid, M., Nisa, M., Sarwar, M. and Khan, M.L. (2012) Effect of Water Treatment of Sorghum on the Performance of Broiler Chicks. South African Journal of Animal Science, 42, 189-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v42i2.12
[19] Francis, G., Kerem, Z., Makkar, H. and Becker, K. (2002) The Biological Action of Saponins in Animal Systems: A Review. British Journal of Nutrition, 88, 587-605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN2002725
[20] Jenkins, K.J. and Atwal, A.S. (1994) Effects of Dietary Saponins on Fecal Bile Acids and Neutral Sterols, and Availability of Vitamins A and E in the Chick. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 5, 134-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0955-2863(94)90084-1
[21] Cheeke, P.R. (1996) Biological Effects of Feed and Forage Saponins and Their Impact on Animal Production. In: Waller, G.R. and Yamasaki, Y., Eds., Saponins Used in Food and Agriculture, Plenum Press, New York, 377-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-0413-5_32
[22] Newkirk, R. (2009) Flax Feed Industry Guide. Flax Canada 2015, Winnipeg.
http://cigi.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/2009_Flax-Feed-Industry-Guide.pdf
[23] Amaducci, S., Colauzzi, M., Zatta, A. and Venturi, G. (2008) Flowering Dynamics in Monoecious and Dioecious Hemp Genotypes. Journal of Industrial Hemp, 13, 5-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15377880801898691
[24] Russo, R. and Reggiani, R. (2013) Variability of Antinutritional Compounds in Flaxseed Flours. International Journal of Plant Biology, 4, 11-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/pb.2013.e3
[25] Goel, N., Sirohi, S.K. and Dwivedi, J. (2012) Estimation of Total Saponins and Evaluate Their Effect on in Vivo Methanogenesis and Rumen Fermentation Pattern in Wheat Straw Based Diet. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research, 2, 120-126. http://www.advetresearch.com/index.php/avr/article/view/50/50
[26] Suriyong, S., Vearasilp, S., Krittigamas, N., Pinmanee, S. and Punyalue, A. (2012) Effect of Seed Maturity on Seed Physiological Quality, Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Hemp Seed. Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Science Special Issue on Agricultural and Natural Resources, 11, 351-358. http://cmuj.cmu.ac.th/sites/default/files/pdf/
NaturalSciences/Volume%2011%2C%20Number%201%2C%20Special%20Issue%
20on%20agricultural%20natural%20resources/048%20
Journal%202012-2.pdf
[27] Sainio, P.P., Jauhiainen, L., Hakala, K. and Ojanen, H. (2009) Climate Changes and Prolongation of Growing Season: Changes in Regional Potential for Field Crop Production in Finland. Agricultural and Food Science, 18, 171-190. http://www.mtt.fi/afs/pdf/mtt-afs-v18n3-4p171.pdf
[28] Zubr, J. (2003) Dietary Fatty Acids and Amino Acids of Camelina sativa Seed. Nutrition and Food Science, 26, 451- 462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2003.tb00260.x
[29] Colombini, S., Broderick, G.A., Galasso, I., Martinelli, T., Rapetti, L., Russo, R. and Reggiani, R. (2014) Evaluation of Camelina sativa (L.) Meal as an Alternative Protein Source in Ruminant Rations. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94, 736-743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6408
[30] Wu, G., Bazer, F.W., Davis, T.A., Jaeger, L.A., Johnson, G.A., Kim, S.W., Knabe, D.A., Meininger, C.J., Spencer, T.E. and Yin, Y.L. (2007) Important Roles for the Arginine Family of Amino Acids in Swine Nutrition and Production. Livestock Science, 112, 8-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.07.003
[31] Wu, G., Knabe, D.A. and Kim, S.W. (2004) Arginine Nutrition in Neonatal Pigs. The Journal of Nutrition, 134, 2783-2390. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/134/10/2783S.full.pdf
[32] European Food Safety Authority (2013) Scientific Opinion on the Safety and Efficacy of L-Methionine Produced by Escherichia coli (KCCM 1125P) and Escherichia coli (KCCM 11340P) for All Animal Species. EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP). EFSA Journal, 11, 3428-3443. http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3428
[33] House, J.D., Neufeld, J. and Leson, G. (2010) Evaluating the Quality of Protein from Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Products through the Use of the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 11801-11807. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf102636b
[34] Mustafà, A.F., McKinnon, J.J. and Christensen, D.A, (1999) The Nutritive Value of Hemp Meal for Ruminants. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 79, 91-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/A98-031
[35] Gakhar, N., Goldberg, E., Jing, M., Gibson, R. and House, J.D. (2012) Effect of Feeding Hemp Seed and Hemp Seed Oil on Laying Hen Performance and Egg Yolk Fatty Acid Content: Evidence of Their Safety and Efficacy for Laying Hen Diets. Poultry Science, 91, 701-711. http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps.2011-01825
[36] Kwanyuen, P. and Burton, J.W.A. (2005) Simple and Rapid Procedure for Phytate Determination in Soybeans and Soy Products. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 82, 81-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-005-1046-9
[37] Matthäus, B. and Zubr, J. (2000) Variability of Specific Components in Camelina sativa Oilseed Cakes. Industrial Crops and Products, 12, 9-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6690(99)00040-0
[38] Piluzza, G., Sulas, L. and Bullitta, S. (2013) Tannins in Forage Plants and Their Role in Animal Husbandry and Environmental Sustainability: A Review. Grass and Forage Science, 69, 32-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gfs.12053
[39] Singleton, V.L. (1981) Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants: Phenolic Substances of Plant Origin Common in Foods. Advances in Food Research, 27, 149-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2628(08)60299-2
[40] Kumar, R. and Singh, M. (1984) Tannins: Their Adverse Role in Ruminant Nutrition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 32, 447-453. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00123a006
[41] Colombini, S., Colombari, G., Crovetto, G.M., Galassi, G. and Rapetti, L. (2009) Tannin Treated Lucerne Silage in Dairy Cow Feeding. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 8, 289-291.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.289
[42] Ernesto, M., Cardoso, P., Nicala, D., Mirione, E., Massaza, F. and Cliff, J. (2002) Persistent Konzo and Cyanide Toxicity from Cassava in Northern Mozambique. Acta Tropica, 82, 357-362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/S0001-706X(02)00042-6
[43] Peric, V., Srebric, M. and Mladenovic-Drinic, S. (2013) Trypsin Inhibitors in Soybean. Soybean: A Dawn to the Legume World: The Future of Soybean Research Is Already Here. Journal of the International Legume Society, 1, 23-24.
[44] Sosulki, F.W., Minja, L.A. and Christensen, D.A. (1988) Trypsin Inhibitors and Nutritive Value in Cereals. Plant Foods and Human Nutrition, 38, 23-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01092307
[45] Tsukamoto, C., Shimada, S., Igita, K., Kudou, S., Kokubun, M., Okubo, K. and Kitamura, K. (1995) Factor Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds: Changes in Isoflavones, Saponins, and Composition of Fatty Acids at Different Temperatures during Seed Development. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43, 1184-1192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00053a012
[46] Karlsson, L. (2010) Hempseed Cake as a Protein Feed for Ruminants. Ph.D. Dissertation, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umea. http://pub.epsilon.slu.se/2394/1/Karlsson_L_101103.pdf
[47] Reddy, M.B. and Cook, J.D. (1991) Assessment of Dietary Determinants of Nonheme-Iron Absorption in Humans and Rats. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54, 723-728.
http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/54/4/723.full.pdf
[48] Wilcox, J.R., Premachandra, G.S., Young, K.A. and Raboy, V. (2000) Isolation of High Seed Inorganic P, Low Phytate Soybean Mutants. Crop Science, 40, 1601-1605.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.4061601x

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.