Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Variation from Bangladesh: Sequence Analysis for the Establishment of a Forensic Database


Mitochondrial DNA sequences of the entire control region and three coding regions were analyzed in 108 unrelated individuals from three regions of Bangladesh. Sequence evaluation was performed with validated primers and combined sequence comparison led to the identification of 14 different haplotypes characterized by 37 variable polymorphic sites. The Bangladeshi sequences exhibited high variations and low random match probability, indicating for forensic application. The mean pairwise difference between individual was 9.698 ± 1.8658 nucleotides (95% CI 9.67 - 9.69), compared to a mean pairwise difference of 9.890 ± 4.189 nucleotides reported from Northeast Asia and suggested significant differences in the mtDNA composition of the various populations. The sequence diversity of 108 Bangladeshi Bengali samples (n = 216 chromosomes) was estimated to be 0.8475 ± 0.13406. This study first time reports that the comparison of closely related mtDNA sequences can be very useful for improving mtDNA database quality, as well as provide haplotype information for forensic study in mainstream population of Bangladesh.

Share and Cite:

Sultana, G. , Tuli, J. , Begum, R. and Tamang, R. (2014) Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Variation from Bangladesh: Sequence Analysis for the Establishment of a Forensic Database. Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, 2, 95-100. doi: 10.4236/fmar.2014.24016.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Stoneking, M., Hedgecock, R.G., Higuchi, L. and Vigilant, H.A. (1991) Population Variation of Human mtDNA Control Region Sequences Detected by Enzymatic Amplification and Sequence-Specific Oligonucleotide Probes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 48, 370-382.
[2] Tajima, F. (1989) Statistical Method for Testing the Neutral Mutation Hypothesis by DNA Polymorphism. Genetics, 123, 585-595.
[3] Karafet, T., Xu, R.L., Du, R.F., Wang, W., Feng, S., Wells, R.S., Redd, A.J., Zegura, S.L. and Hammer, M.F. (2001) Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Micro Evolutionary Processes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 69, 615-628.
[4] Cobl, M.D., Just, R.S., O’Callaghan, J.E., Letmanyi, I.H., Peterson, C.T., Irwin, J.A. and Parsons, T.J. (2003) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms over the Entire mtDNA Genome That Increase the Forensic Power of mtDNA Testing in Caucasians. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 118, 137-146.
[5] Imaizumi, K., Parsons, T.J., Yoshino, M. and Holland, M.M. (2002) A New Database of Mitochondrial DNA Hypervariable Regions I and II Sequences from 162 Japanese Individuals. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 116, 68- 73.
[6] Anita, B., Christine, T.P., Jodi, A.I., Solomon, M., Davy, K.K., Walther, P. and Thomas, J.P. (2004) Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Sequences from Nairobi (Kenya): Inferring Phylogenetic Parameters for the Establishment of a Forensic Database. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 118, 294-306.
[7] Sultana, G.N.N., Rahman, A., Karim, M.M., Shahinuzzaman, A.D.A., Begum, R. and Begum, R.A. (2011) Breast Cancer Risk Associated Mitochondrial NADH-Dehydrogenase Subunit-3 (ND3) Polymorphisms (G10398A and T10400C) in Bangladeshi Women. Journal of Medical Genetics Genomics, 3, 131-135.
[8] Kivisild, T., Bamshad, M.J., Kaldma, K., Metspalu, M., Reidla, M., Laos, S., Parik, J., Watkins, W.S., et al. (1999) Deep Common Ancestry of Indian and Western-Eurasian Mitochondrial DNA Lineages. Current Biology, 9, 1331- 1334.
[9] Kivisild, T., Tolk, H.V., Parik, J., Wang, Y., et al. (2002) The Emerging Limbs and Twigs of the East Asian mtDNA Tree. Molecular Biology & Evolution, 19, 1737-1751.
[10] Bandelt, H.J., Forster, P., Sykes, B.C. and Richards, M.B. (1995) Mitochondrial Portraits of Human Populations Using Median Networks. Genetics, 141, 743-753.
[11] Anderson, S., Bankier, A.T., Barrell, B.G., de Bruuijn, M.H., Coulson, A.R., Drouin, J., Eperon, I.C., et al. (1981) Sequence and Organization of Human Mitochondrial Genome. Nature, 290, 457-465.
[12] Schneider, S., Guillaume, L. and Excoffier, L. (2005) Arlequin (Version 3.0): An Integrated Software Package for Population Genetics Data Analysis. Evolutionary Bioinformatics, 1, 47-50.
[13] Kong, Q.P., Yao, Y.G., Sun, C., Bandelt, H.J., Zhu, C.L. and Zhang, Y.P. (2003) Phylogeny of East Asian Mitochondrial DNA Lineages Inferred from Complete Sequence. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73, 671-676.
[14] Thangaraj, K., Chaubey, G., Kivisild, T., Reddy, A.G., Singh, V.K., Rasalkar, A.A. and Singh, V.K. (2005) Reconstructing the Origin of Andaman Islanders. Science, 308, 996.
[15] Bergen, A.W., Wang, C.Y., Tsai, J., Jefferson, K., Dey, C., Smith, K.D., Park, S.C., Tsai, S.J. and Goldman, D. (1999) An Asian-Native American Paternal Lineage Identified by RPS4Y Resequencing and by Microsatellite Haplotyping. Annals of Human Genetics, 63, 63-80.
[16] Bertorelle, G. and Excoffier, L. (1998) Inferring Admixture Proportions from Molecular Data. Molecular Biology & Evolution, 15, 1298-1311.
[17] Rajkumar, R., Banerjee, J., Gunturi, H.B., Trivedi, R. and Kashyap, V.K. (2005) Phylogeny and Antiquity of M Macrohalogroups Inferred from Complete mtDNA Sequence of Indian Specific Lineages. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 5, 26.
[18] Miller, K.W. and Budowle, B. (2001) A Compendium of Human Mitochondrial DNA Control Region: Development of an International Standard Forensic Database. Croatian Medical Journal, 42, 315-327.
[19] Gazi, N.N.S., Tamang, R., Singh, V.P., Pathak, A.K., Singh, M., Chaubey, G., Thangaraj, K., et al. (2013) Genetic Structure of Tibeto-Burman Population of Bangladesh: Evaluating the Gene Flow along the Sides of Bay-of-Bengal. PLoS ONE, 8, e75064.
[20] Basu, A., Mukherjee, N., Roy, S., Sengupta, S., Banerjee, S., Chakraborty, M., et al. (2003) Ethnic India: A Genomic View, with Special Reference to Peopling and Structure. Genome Research, 13, 2277-2290.
[21] Ballinger, S.W., Schurr, T.G., Torroni, A., Gan, Y.Y., Hodge, J.A., Hassan, K., Chen, K.H. and Wallace, D.C. (1992) Southeast Asian Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Reveals Genetic Continuity of Ancient Mongoloid Migrations. Genetics, 130, 139-152.
[22] Cordaux, R., Saha, N., Bentley, G.R., Aunger, R., Sirajuddin, S.M. and Stoneking, M. (2003) Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Reveals Diverse Histories of Tribal Populations from India. European Journal of Human Genetics, 11, 253- 264.
[23] Sun, C., Kong, Q.P., Palinichamy, M.G., Agrawal, S., Bandelt, H.J., Yao, Y.G., et al. (2006) The Dazzling Array of Basal Branches in the mtDNA Macrohalogroups M from India as Referred from Complete Genomes. Molecular Biology & Evolution, 23, 683-690.
[24] Bermisheva, M.A., Kutuev, I.A., Korshunova, T., Dubova, N.A., Villems, R. and Khusnutdinova, E.K. (2004) Phylogeografic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Nogays: The High Level of Mixture of Maternal Lineages from Eastern and Western Eurasia. Molekuliarnaia Biologiia, 38, 617-624.
[25] Bodner, M., Zimmermann, B., Röck, A., Kloss-Brandstätter, A., Horst, D., Horst, B., et al. (2011) Southeast Asian Diversity: First Insights into the Complex mtDNA Structure of Laos. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11, 49.
[26] Yang, Y., Zhang, P., He, Q., Zhu, Y.L., Yang, X.H., Lv, R. and Chen, J.H. (2011) A New Strategy for the Discrimination of Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups in Han Population. Journal of Forensic Science, 56, 586-590.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.