Constant Power Model in Arm Rotation—A New Approach to Hill’s Equation


The purpose of this study was to further develop the constant power model of a previous study and to provide the final solution of Hill’s force-velocity equation. Forearm and whole arm rotations of three different subjects were performed downwards (elbow and shoulder extension) and upwards (elbow and shoulder flexion) with maximum velocity. These arm rotations were recorded with a special camera system and the theoretically derived model of constant maximum power was fitted to the experimentally measured data. The moment of inertia of the arm sectors was calculated using immersion technique for determining accurate values of friction coefficients of elbow and whole arm rotations. The experiments of the present study verified the conclusions of a previous study in which theoretically derived equation with constant maximum power was in agreement with experimentally measured results. The results of the present study were compared with the mechanics of Hill’s model and a further development of Hill’s force-velocity relationship was derived: Hill’s model was transformed into a constant maximum power model consisting of three different components of power. It was concluded that there are three different states of motion: 1) the state of low speed, maximal acceleration without external load which applies to the hypothesis of constant moment; 2) the state of high speed, maximal power without external load which applies to the hypothesis of constant power and 3) the state of maximal power with external load which applies to Hill’s equation. This is a new approach to Hill’s equation.

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Rahikainen, A. and Virmavirta, M. (2014) Constant Power Model in Arm Rotation—A New Approach to Hill’s Equation. World Journal of Mechanics, 4, 157-169. doi: 10.4236/wjm.2014.46018.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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