Pregnancy Outcomes in Smokeless Tobacco Users Cohort Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital


There is a dearth of literature regarding the pregnancy outcomes in antenatal women using smokeless tobacco products (STP). Objective: To compare maternal and neonatal pregnancy outcomes in antenatal women using smokeless tobacco products with those not using tobacco products. Method: Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Guru Teg Bahadur hospital, Delhi received brief information about smokeless tobacco products. Antenatal women using STP and matched controls, 92 in each group (total 184) were recruited for the study. After obtaining consent, the urinary cotinine level was measured in both groups at first contact. Antenatal, labour and postpartum events were recorded in both groups. Urinary cotinine levels were again measured at 6 months in the user group. Results: Average age of antenatal women under study was 24.8 yrs and 25.21 yrs in user and non-user groups respectively. More women in the user group were illiterate (P < 0.05). Mean urinary cotinine in user and non-users was 44.21 +/? 20.39 μg/ml and 24.37 +/? 20.14 μg/ml respectively (p < 0.0001). Women using STPs for more than 5 yrs recorded higher urinary cotinine levels. There was no significant difference in urinary cotinine levels with the type of tobacco product consumed. Pregnancy outcomes of 39 women are known. There was no significant difference in antenatal, intra-natal and postpartum complications in the two groups. Neonatal weight difference was 20 gms.Conclusion: Smokeless tobacco products are the most common forms used by women in low and middle income countries. Larger studies are required to understand their effects on pregnancy outcomes.

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Radhika, A. , Kaur, J. , Sharma, T. , Banerjee, B. , Radhakrishnan, G. and Vaid, N. (2014) Pregnancy Outcomes in Smokeless Tobacco Users Cohort Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4, 371-378. doi: 10.4236/ojog.2014.47055.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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