Share This Article:

Heavy Metals Accumulation in Soil Irrigated with Industrial Effluents of Gadoon Industrial Estate, Pakistan and Its Comparison with Fresh Water Irrigated Soil

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1926KB) PP. 80-87
DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2014.32010    4,970 Downloads   6,630 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Wastewater mixed with industrial effluents is used for irrigation in Gadoon Industrial estate and thus contaminating soil. This soil was tested for heavy metal content by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (perkin elmer 700) and compared with control soil irrigated with tube well water at seven selected spots. Accumulation of the toxic metal was significantly greater in the soil irrigated with industrial effluent than control soil (p < 0.05). Manganese (Mn) was the most significant pollutant, accumulated up to 9.95 ppm in the soil irrigated with industrial waste water. It was found that the samples were containing Zn in the range of 1.596 - 6.288, Cu 0.202 - 1.236, Co 0.074 - 0.115, Ni 0.0002 - 0.544, Cr 0.243 - 0.936, Mn 3.667 - 9.955 and Pb 0.488 - 1.259 ppm. No sample was containing the heavy metal above the critical level mentioned in typical and unsafe heavy metal levels in soil.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Amin, N. , Ibrar, D. and Alam, S. (2014) Heavy Metals Accumulation in Soil Irrigated with Industrial Effluents of Gadoon Industrial Estate, Pakistan and Its Comparison with Fresh Water Irrigated Soil. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 3, 80-87. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2014.32010.

References

[1] Amin, N., Hussain, S., Alamzeb, A. and Begum, S. (2013) Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Edible Parts of Vegetables Irrigated with Waste Water and Their Daily Intake to Adults and Children, District Mardan, Pakistan. Food Chemistry, 136, 1515-1532.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.058
[2] Amin, N., Shah, M.T. and Ali, K. (2009) Investigation of Raw Material for the Manufacturing of Sulphate-Resisting Cement in Darukhula Nizampur, NWFP, Pakistan. Magazine of Concrete Research, 61, 779-785.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/macr.2008.61.10.779
[3] Ali, K., Amin, N. and Shah, M.T. (2008) Chemical Study of Limestone and Clay for Cement Manufacturing in Darukhula, Nizampur District, Nowshera, North West Frontier Province (N.W.F.P.), Pakistan. Chinese Journal of Geo-chemistry, 27, 242-248.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11631-008-0242-8
[4] Wang, L.X., Guo, Z.H., Xiao, X.Y., Chen, T.B., Liao, X.Y. and Song, J. (2008) Variations and Trends of the Freezing and Thawing Index along the Qinghai-Xizang Railway for 1966-2004. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 18, 3-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11442-008-0003-y
[5] Rattan, R.K., Datta, S.P., Chhonkar, P.K., Suribabu, K. and Singh. A.K. (2005) Long-Term Impact of Irrigation with Sewage Effluents on Heavy Metal Content in Soils, Crops and Groundwater—A Case Study. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 109, 310-322.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.02.025
[6] Amin, N. (2010) Chemical Activation of Bagasse Ash in Cementitious System and Its Impact on Strength Development. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 32, 481-484.
[7] Sharma, R.K., Agarwal, M. and Marshall, F. (2007) Heavy Metals Contamination of Soil and Vegetables in Suburban Areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 66, 258-266.
[8] Sridhara, N., Chary, C.T. and Samuel, S.R.D. (2008) Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 69, 43.
[9] Zhou, S.L., Lu, C.F. and Wan, H.Y. (2005) Journal of Henan Normal University (Natural Science), 33, 12.
[10] Xie, Z.M., Li, J., Chen, J.J. and Wu, W.H. (2006) Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 1, 2.
[11] Zhang, C.S. (2006) Using Multivariate Analyses and GIS to Identify Pollutants and Their Spatial Patterns in Urban Soils in Galway, Ireland. Environmental Pollution, 142, 501-511.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.10.028
[12] US EPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria. Federal Register, Care (1998).
[13] Cui, Y.J., Zhu, Y.G., Zhai, R.H., Chen, D.Y., Huang, Y.Z. and Qiu, Y. (2004) Environment International, 3, 25.
[14] Ding, A.F., Pan, G.X. and Li, L.Q. (2006) Distribution of PAHs in Particle-Size Fractions of Selected Paddy Soils from Tai Lake Region, China and Its Environmental Significance. Acta Sci. Circum., 26, 293-299.
[15] Melloul, O.L., Hassani, A. and Bouhoum, K. (2002) International Journal of Environmental Health, 23, 21.
[16] Fleck, J.A., Grigal, D.F. and Nater, E.A. (1999) Mercury Uptake by Trees: An Observational Experiment. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 115, 513-523.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005194608598
[17] Khan, S., Cao, Q., Zheng, Y.M., Huang, Y.Z. and Zhu, Y.G. (2008) Health Risks of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils and Food Crops Irrigated with Wastewater in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution, 152, 686-692.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.056
[18] Lupton, G.P., Kao, G.F., Johnson, F.B., Graham, J.H. and Helwig, E.B. (1985) Cutaneous Mercury Granuloma. Journal of American Academy of Dermatology, 12, 296-303.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-9622(85)80039-6

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.