Share This Article:

Detection of HIV-1 and -2 Antibodies among Selected Secondary Schools in Udenu L.G.A. of Enugu State, South East, Nigeria

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:61KB) PP. 259-263
DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.34039    2,991 Downloads   4,378 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 and -2 among three selected secondary schools in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Three hundred students were recruited for this study representing 120 males (40%) and 180 females (60%) with their age ranging from 12 to 20 years from September to November, 2010. Samples of blood were collected and processed using standard laboratory procedures. All the students were screened for the presence of antibodies to HIV-1 and -2 using 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) rapid screening kits, based on WHO systems-2 for detecting antibodies to HIV-1 and -2. The diagnosis of HIV infection was further confirmed by Western blot. The results showed that out of the 300 students who were enrolled into the study, 6 (2%) were positive for HIV-1 and -2 antibodies including two males (0.7%) and four females (1.3%). Statistically, there is a significant difference in the distribution of HIV infections by gender (P < 0.05). It showed that students aged 12 years and below 20 years had lower infection rate for HIV. Statistically, there is no significant difference in the distribution of infections with respect to age (P > 0.05). Although its prevalence is low, the presence of HIV-1 and -2 antibodies in Secondary School students of Udenu L.G.A. of Enugu State should be worrisome because it can easily be transmitted to other healthy individuals in the nearest future. Therefore, this calls for a concerted and synergistic effort to nip the spread in the bud so that it cannot spread to other teenagers and the larger community.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

O. Okoli, C. Ezekoye, O. Ochiabuto, C. Nwafor and S. Ugwu, "Detection of HIV-1 and -2 Antibodies among Selected Secondary Schools in Udenu L.G.A. of Enugu State, South East, Nigeria," Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 259-263. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.34039.

References

[1] G. F. Brooks, S. J. Butel and A. S. Morse, “Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology,” 23rd Edi- tion, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 2004.
[2] A. Kovas and X. J. Rusheed, “Comparison of a Rapid Non-Isotopic Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay with Four Commonly Used Methods for the Detection of Infection of Human Immune-Deficiency Virus Type One in Neonates and Children,” The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Vol. 14, 1995, pp. 948-954. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006454-199511000-00005
[3] S. K. Brodine, R. A. Shaffer, M. J. Starkey, S. A. Tasker and J. L. Gilcrest, “Drug Resistance Patterns, Genetic Subtypes and Features in Military Personnel with HIV-1 Seroconversion,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 131, No. 7, 1999. pp. 502-506. http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-131-7-199910050-00004
[4] H. D. Gayle, R. P. Keeling, M. Garcia-Tunon, B. W. Kilbourne and J. P. Narkunas, “Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus among University Students,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 232, 1990, pp. 1538-1541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199011293232206
[5] N. C. Nwachukwu and A. Orji, “Sero Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency virus among Some Fresh Ni- gerian Graduates,” Research Journal of Immunology, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2008, pp. 51-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/rji.2008.51.55
[6] C. Mbakwem-Aniebo, C. C. Ezekoye and I. O. Okonko, “Detection of HIV-1 and -2 Antibodies among Freshmen of the University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria,” World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 16, 2012, pp. 1087-1092.
[7] L. P. Peterson and C. R. White, “Premarital Screening for Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in United States: The Prenatal Screening Group,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 80, 1990, pp. 1087-1090. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.80.9.1087
[8] Z. A. Jeremiah, I. A. Okon and T. A. Jeremiah, “Sero-prevalence of HIV and Frequency of Haemoglobin Genotypes, ABO and Rh Blood Groups, among Premarital Couples in Port Harcourt, Nigeria,” South African Family Practice, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2007, p. 15.
[9] O. U. Umeora and C. Esike, “Prevalence of HIV Infection among Premarital Couples in South-East, Nigeria,” Afri- can Journal of AIDS Research, Vol. 4, 2005, pp. 99-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16085900509490348
[10] C. I. Akani, O. Erhabor and S. Babatunde, “Pre-Marital HIV Testing in Couples from Faith-Based Organisations: Experience in Port Harcourt, Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal of Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2005, pp. 39-44.
[11] O. J. Akinjogunla and A. A. Adegoke, “Sero-Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 1 and 2 Infections in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State,” Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 4, No. 11, pp. 1381-1384.
[12] G. R. I. Pennap, M. D. Makut, S. D. Gyar and G. Owuna, “Sero-Prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Keffi and Environs,” Nigerian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2006, pp. 1114-1146.
[13] T. A. Madani, Y. Y. Al-Mazrou, M. H. Al-Jeffri and N. S. Al Huzaim, “Epidemiology of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Saudi Arabia: 18 Years Result and Prevention from an Islamic Perspective,” BMC Infectious Disease, Vol. 4, 2004, pp. 1186-1188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-4-25
[14] J. G. Laah and E. Ayiwulu, “Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Patients Diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Nasarawa Eggon,” Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2010, pp. 114-120.
[15] K. Middelkoop, L. G. Bekker, H. Liang, L. D. H. Aquino, E. Sebastian, L. Myer and R. Wood, “Force of Tuberculosis Infection among Adolescents in a High HIV and TB Prevalence Community: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study,” BMC Infectious Disease, Vol. 11, 2011, p. 156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-11-156
[16] W. D. Macpherson, M. Zencovich and B. D. Gushulak, “Emerging Pediatric HIV Epidemic Related to Migration,” Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2006, pp. 612-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051025
[17] E. L. Korenromp, B. G. Williams, S. J. Vials, E. Gonwis and C. F. Gilks, “Malaria Attributable to HIV-1 Epidemic in Sub-Sahara Africa,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 11, No. 9, 2005, pp. 1410-1419.
[18] AVERT, “HIV and AIDS in Nigeria,” 2010. http://www.avert.org/aids-nigeria.htm.
[19] A. Celikbas, O. Ergonul, N. Baykam, S. Eren, H. Esener, M. Eroglu and B. Dokuzoguz, “Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of HIV/AIDS Patients in Turkey, Where the Prevalence Is Lowest in the Region,” Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2008, pp. 42-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1545109707306575
[20] Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention, “HIV/AIDS Statistics,” HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2002, pp. 1-44.
[21] P. E. Thomas, A. C. Voetsch, B. Song, D. Calloway and C. Goode, “HIV Risk Behaviors and Testing History in Historically Black College and University Settings,” Public Health Reports, Vol. 123, No. 3, 2008, pp. 115-125.
[22] Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention, “Adoption of Protective Behaviors among Persons with Recent HIV Infection and Diagnosis-Alabama, New Jersey and Tennessee, 1997-1998,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Vol. 49, 2000, pp. 512-515.
[23] N. S. Wenger, L. S. Linn, M. Epstein and M. F. Shapiro, “Reduction of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Heterosexuals Undergoing HIV Antibodies Testing: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 81, No. 12, 1991, pp. 1580-1585. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.81.12.1580
[24] C. Mbakwem-Aniebo, C. C. Ezekoye and I. O. Okonko, “Knowledge about HIV/AIDS and Reported Risk Behaviours among Freshmen of the University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria,” World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 16, 2012, pp. 1093-1103.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.