SwiveLock Bone Anchor Stabilization of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament Deficient Stifle in Dogs: Clinical Outcome


A number of surgical procedures have been reported for the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficient stifle in dogs. The objectives of this study were to report long-term outcomes in dogs with CCL deficient stifles stabilized with a knotless SwiveLock bone anchor preloaded with FiberTape and to report associated complications. Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs with unilateral CCL deficient stifles treated with the SwiveLock system (n = 41) between June 2008 and January 2012. Dogs were divided into three groups according to body weight to assess differences between owner assessed functional outcomes. Complications were recorded and a validated owner questionnaire was used to evaluate long-term outcomes at least 6 months postoperatively. Owner assessment prior to and after treatment with the SwiveLock system was statistically significant for each of the categories of the validated owner questionnaire. There was no significant difference among the weight groups for any of the preoperative and postoperative treatment owner questions. Complications requiring surgical revision occurred in three (7.3%) dogs. Two had surgical site infections and one had a subsequent meniscal tear. The authors concluded that the SwiveLock system placed at near isometric sites is an effective surgical option for the treatment of dogs with CCL deficient stifles.

Share and Cite:

M. Raske and D. Hulse, "SwiveLock Bone Anchor Stabilization of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament Deficient Stifle in Dogs: Clinical Outcome," Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 3 No. 7, 2013, pp. 297-301. doi: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.37048.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. L. Piermattei, F. L. Gretchen and C. E. DeCamp, “The Stifle Joint,” In: D. L. Piermattei, F. L. Gretchen and C. E. DeCamp, Eds., Brinker, Piermattei, and Flo’s Handbook of Small Animal Orthopedics and Fracture Repair, Elsevier Inc., St. Louis, 2006, pp. 562-632.
[2] J. L. Cook, “Extracapsular Stabilization,” In: P. Muir, Ed., Advances in the Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, 2010, pp. 163-167.
[3] S. E. Kim, A. Pozzi, M. P. Kowaleski, et al., “Tibial Osteotomies for Cranial Cruciate Ligament Insufficiency in Dogs,” Veterinary Surgery, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2008, pp. 111-125.
[4] H. S. Mullen and D. T. Matthiesen, “Complications of Transposition of the Fibular Head for Stabilization of the Cranial Cruciate-Deficient Stifle in Dogs: 80 Cases (1982-1986),” Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, Vol. 195, No. 9, 1989, pp. 1267-1271.
[5] D. Hulse, W. Hyman, B. Beale, et al., “Determination of Isometric Points for Placement of a Lateral Suture in Treatment of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament Deficient Stifle,” Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2010, pp. 163-167.
[6] D. Hulse, B. Saunders, B. Beale, et al., “Extra-Articular Stabilization of the Cranial Cruciate Deficient Stifle with Anchor Systems,” Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere, Vol. 39, No. 5, 2011, pp. 363-367.
[7] J. T. Hudson, M. R. Slater, L. Taylor, et al., “Assessing Repeat Ability and Validity of a Visual Analogue Scale Questionnaire for Use in Assessing Pain and Lameness in Dogs,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 65, No. 12, 2004, pp. 1634-1643.
[8] C. J. Choate, A. Pozzi, D. D. Lewis, et al., “Mechanical Comparison of Lateral Circumfabellar Suture, Tightrope ccl, and Swivelock Bone Anchor for Extracapsular Stabilization of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Stifle in Dogs,” Proceed 32nd Annual Conference of the Veterinary Orthopedic Society, Snowmass, 2005, pp. 9-10.
[9] S. Eugster, P. Schawalder, F. Gaschen, et al., “A Prospective Study of Postoperative Surgical Site Infections in Dogs and Cats,” Veterinary Surgery, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2004, pp. 542-550.
[10] T. N. Frey, M. G. Hoelzler, T. D. Scavelli, et al., “Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection-Inflammation in Dogs Undergoing Surgery for Rupture of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament: 902 Cases (2005-2006),” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 236, No. 1, 2010, pp. 88-94.
[11] P. B. Vasseur, J. Levy, E. Dowd, et al., “Surgical Wound Infection Rates in Dogs and Cats Data from a Teaching Hospital,” Veterinary Surgery, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1988, pp. 60-64.
[12] L. J. Owen, J. A. Gines, T. G. Knowles, et al., “Efficacy of Adhesive Incise Drapes in Preventing Bacterial Contamination of Clean Canine Surgical Wounds,” Veterinary Surgery, Vol. 38, No. 6, 2009, pp. 732-737.
[13] N. D. Rose, D. Goerke, R. B. Evans, et al., “Mechanical Testing of Orthopedic Suture Material Used for ExtraArticular Stabilization of Canine Cruciate-Ligament Deficient Stifles,” Veterinary Surgery, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2012, pp. 266-272.
[14] M. L. Dulisch, “Suture Reaction Following Extra-Articular Stifle Stabilization in the Dog—Part I: A Retrospective Study of 161 Stifles,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 17, 1981, pp. 569-571.
[15] J. L. Cook, J. K. Luther, J. Beetem, et al., “Clinical Comparison of a Novel Extracapsular Stabilization Procedure and Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy for Treatment of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Deficiency in Dogs,” Veterinary Surgery, Vol. 39, No. 3, 2010, pp. 315-323.
[16] S. A. Casale and R. J. McCarthy, “Complications Associated with Lateral Fabellotibial Suture Surgery for Cranial Cruciate Ligament Injury in Dogs: 363 Cases (1997-2005),” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 234, No. 2, 2009, pp. 229-235.
[17] L. Guenego, A. Zahara, A. Madelenat, et al., “Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture in Large and Giant Dogs. A retrospective Evaluation of a Modified Lateral Extracapsular Stabilization,” Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2007, pp. 43-50.
[18] M. G. Conzemius and R. B. Evans, “Caregiver Placebo Effect for Dogs with Lameness from Osteoarthritis,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 241, No. 10, 2012, pp. 1314-1319.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.