Case Presentation of Preureteral Vena Cava and Review of the Literature


Retrocaval ureter, terms are anatomically descriptive but misleading in regard to development and results from altered vascular development. This anomaly is relatively uncommon, although it has clinical relevance. The ureter typically deviates medially behind the inferior vena cava, winding about and crossing in front of it from a medial to a lateral direction, to resume a normal course, distally, to the bladder. The renal pelvis and upper ureter typically appear elongated and dilated in a “J” or fishhook shape before passing behind the vena cava. Diagnoses were confirmed with intravenous urography and patient had an open surgical repair of the anomaly. The anomaly predominantly involves the right ureter, as was observed in these reported cases. Treatment is surgical allowing for correction of the anomaly with resolution of symptoms

Share and Cite:

N. Hyseni, S. Llullaku, M. Berisha, A. Shefkiu, S. Grajqevci, H. Jashari, D. koqinaj, F. Hyseni, I. Bytyci and F. Muqolli, "Case Presentation of Preureteral Vena Cava and Review of the Literature," Open Journal of Urology, Vol. 3 No. 5, 2013, pp. 206-209. doi: 10.4236/oju.2013.35038.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S. H. Kim, “Retrocaval Ureter,” In: K. W. Ashcraft and T. M. Holder, Eds., Pediatric Surgery, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1993, p. 603.
[2] V. P. Chuang, C. E. Mena and P. A. Hoskins, “Congenital Anomalies of the Inferior Vena Cava. Review of Embryogenesis and Presentation of a Simplified Classification,” British Journal of Radiology, Vol. 47, No. 556, 1974, pp. 206-213. doi:10.1259/0007-1285-47-556-206
[3] R. N. Schlussel and A. B. Retik, “Preureteral Vena Cava,” In: L. R. Kavoussi, A. C. Novick, A. W. Partin and C. A. Peters, Eds., Campbell-Walsh Urology, ElSevier Saunders, Philadelphia, 2007, pp. 3418-3420.
[4] A. Lesma, A. Bocciardi and P. Rigatti, “Circumcaval Ureter: Embryology,” European Urology Supplements, Vol. 5, No. 5, 2006, pp. 444-448
[5] C. A. Peters, R. N. Schlussel and C. Mendelson, “Preureteral Vena Cava,” In: A. J. Wein, L. R. Kavoussi, A. C. Novick, A. W. Partin, C. A. Peters, Eds., Campbell-Walsh Urology, El-Sevier Saunders, Philadelphia, 2012, pp. 3263-3265.
[6] R. O. Olson and G. Austen Jr., “Postcaval Ureter—Report and Discussion of a Case with Successful Surgical Repair,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 242, No. 25, 1950, pp. 963-968. doi:10.1056/NEJM195006222422501
[7] W. Dreyfuss, “Anomaly Simulating a Retrocaval Ureter,” Journal of Urology, Vol. 82, 1959, pp. 630-632.
[8] I. Lerman, S. Lerman and F. Lerman, “Retrocaval Ureter: Report of a Case,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 53, 1956, p. 74.
[9] M. R. Peisojovich and S. J. Lutz, “Retrocaval Ureter—A Case Report and a Successful Repair with a New Surgical Technique,” Michigan Medicine, Vol. 68, No. 21, 1969, pp. 1137-1141.
[10] M. Watanabe, S. Kawamura, T. Nakada, et al., “Left Preureteral Vena Cava (Retrocaval or Circumcaval Ureter) Associated with Partial Situs Inversus,” Journal of Urology, Vol. 145, 1991, pp. 1047-1048.
[11] I. Rubinstein, A. G. Calvacanti, A. F. Canalini, M. A. Freitas and P. M. Accioly, “Retrocaval Ureter: Two Case Reports,” Ghana Medical Journal, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2011, pp. 177-180.
[12] W. T. Ng and S. S. M. Ng, “Double Inferior Vena Cava: A Report of Three Cases,” Singapore Medical Journal, Vol. 50, No. 6, 2009, pp. 211-213.
[13] E. Bateson and D. Atkinson, “Circumcaval Ureter: A New Classification,” Clinical Radiology, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1969, pp. 173-177. doi:10.1016/S0009-9260(69)80166-2
[14] M. M. Kenawi and D. I. Williams, “Circumcaval Ureter: A Report of 4 Cases in Children with a Review of the Literature and a New Classification,” British Journal of Urology, Vol. 48, No. 3, 1976, pp. 183-192. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.1976.tb10197.x
[15] M. C. Uthapp, et al., “Retrocaval Urter: MR Appearances,” British Journal of Radiology, Vol. 75, No. 890, 2002, pp. 177-179.
[16] S. K. Acharya, B. Jindal, D. K. Yadav, S. Singha and D. Bagga, “Retrocaval Ureter: A Rare Cause of Hydronephrosis in Children,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2009, pp. 846-848. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2008.11.053
[17] P. A. López González, P. López Cubillana, G. Server Pastor, O. Girón Vallejo, R. Ruíz Pruneda, G. Do?ate I?iguez, J. C. Ruíz Morcillo, C. Moreno Alarcón, L. Nortes Cano and G. Gómez Gómez, “Retrocaval Ureter in Children. Case Report and Bibliographic Review,” Archivos Espa?oles de Urología, Vol. 64, No. 5, 2011, pp. 461-464.
[18] H. Z. Li, X. Ma, L. Qi, T. P. Shi, B. J. Wang and X. Zhang, “Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Ureteroureterostomy for Retrocaval Ureter: Report of 10 Cases and Literature Review,” Urology, Vol. 76, No. 4, 2010, pp. 873876. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2009.12.056
[19] Z. Chen, X. Chen, Z. H. Wu, Y. C. Luo and N. N. Li, “Treatment of Retrocaval Ureter by Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Ureteroureterostomy: Experience On 12 Patients,” Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques A, Vol. 21, No. 9, 2011, pp. 803-807. doi:10.1089/lap.2011.0211

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.