On the Characteristic of Orthogonality for Multi-Carrier-Based Systems


The dominate factors caused by reasons of losing the orthogonality in fading channel including FBC (fading branch correlation), CFO (carrier frequency offset), and even the CPN (carrier phase noise) are novel discussion in this letter. The first one factor causes the ISI (inter-symbol interference), and, however, the latter two will lead to the phenomenon of CPE (common phase error) and ICI (inter-carrier interference). On the other hand, they will lead to the loss of orthogonality for the radio system with multi-carrier modulating schemes, i.e., both them mainly deteriorate a wireless communication system. Eventually, in this letter not only the analytical expressions are derived, but a three dimension numerical results from the analysis involve the three parameters also illustrated is.

Share and Cite:

H. Huang, J. Chen and C. Huang, "On the Characteristic of Orthogonality for Multi-Carrier-Based Systems," Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 8, 2013, pp. 642-646. doi: 10.4236/eng.2013.58077.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S. L. Talbot and B. F. Boroujeny, “Mobility and Carrier Offset Modeling in OFDM,” Proceeding of IEEE Globe com, Washington DC, 26-30 November 2007, pp. 4286 4290.
[2] W. M. Jang, L. Nguyen and M. W. Lee, “MAI and ICI of Synchronous Uplink MC-CDMA with Frequency Off set,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2008.
[3] A. Sundhar, P. Kamarajar and P. Dananjayan, “Capacity Enhancement in MCCDMA-MIMO System Using Iterative Water Filling Approach Based Power Distribution Method,” IEEE Transactions on Third International Con ference on Communications, Computing Communication & Networking Technologies (ICCCNT), 2012, pp. 1-5.
[4] J. I.-Z. Chen, “Performance Analysis for MC-CDMA System over Single and Multiple-Cell Environments in Correlated-Nakagami-m Fading,” IEICE Transactions on Communication, Vol. E90-B, No. 7, 2007.
[5] P. M. Shankar, “Macrodiversity and Microdiversity in Correlated Shadowed Fading Channels,” IEEE Transac tions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 58, No. 2, 2009, pp. 727-732. doi:10.1109/TVT.2008.926622
[6] D. Petrovic, W. Rave and G. Fettweis, “Effects of Phase Noise on OFDM Systems with and without PLL: Charac terization and Compensation,” IEEE Transactions on Communication, Vol. 55, No. 8, 2007, pp. 1607-1616. doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2007.902593
[7] R. Corvaja and A. G. Armada, “Joint Channel and Phase Noise Compensation for OFDM in Fast-Fading Multipath Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Tech nology, Vol. 58, No. 2, 2009, pp. 636-642. doi:10.1109/TVT.2008.927719
[8] Z. Du, J. Cheng and N. C. Beaulieu, “Accurate Error-Rate Performance Analysis of OFDM on Frequency-Selective Nakagami-m Fading Channels,” IEEE Transactions on Communication, Vol. 54, No. 2, 2006.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.