Zinc and Chromium Load in Road Dust, Suspended Particulate Matter and Foliar Dust Deposits of Anand City, Gujarat


Anand, the milk capital of India, is a developing city with increasing vehicles and developmental activities going on at a fast pace. This study attempts to investigate the zinc and chromium concentration in street dust, suspended particulate matter and in foliar dust deposits. Ten sampling locations were selected based on the traffic density on the roads and different anthropogenic activity. Sampling was carried out in the dry months of January to March 2011. The range of Zn and Cr was 16.82 - 108.29 ppm and 118 - 151.5 ppm in the street dust respectively. Zn concentration in Suspended particulate matter lies in the range of 12.41 to 86 ppm and Cr concentration between 75 to 130 ppm. The range of Cr in foliar deposited dust varied from 79.54 ppm to 31 ppm. Whereas, for Zn maximum concentration was in S10 which is 42.34 ppm and minimum was in site S9, 23.73 ppm. ANOVA single factor showed that at 0.05 level of significance site wise variation of zinc and chromium concentration in SPM, Street dust and foliar deposited dust was not significant signifying similar source of contamination. Which is further strengthened by the good positive correlation found between the Zn and Cr concentration of street dust, leaf deposited dust and SPM. The Contamination Factor in the sites where metal concentration was high was 1.24 in S10 and 1.06 in S5 for Zn. For chromium the value of CF was 1.77 in S10 and 1.67 in S5. These values indicate that street dust is moderately contaminated with respect to zinc and chromium.

Share and Cite:

T. Bhattacharya, S. Chakraborty, D. Tuteja and M. Patel, "Zinc and Chromium Load in Road Dust, Suspended Particulate Matter and Foliar Dust Deposits of Anand City, Gujarat," Open Journal of Metal, Vol. 3 No. 2A, 2013, pp. 42-50. doi: 10.4236/ojmetal.2013.32A1006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] F. Ahmed and H. Ishiga, “Trace Metal Concentrations in Street Dusts of Dhaka City, Bangladesh,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, No. 21, 2006, pp. 3835-3844. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.004
[2] S. Tokalioglu and S. Kartal, “Multivariate Analysis of the Data and Speciation of Heavy Metals in Street Dust Samples from the Organized Industrial District in Kayseri (Turkey),” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, No. 16, 2006, pp. 2797-2805. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.01.019
[3] T. Bhattacharya, S. Chakraborty, B. Fadadu and P. Bhattacharya, “Heavy Metal Concentrations in Street and Leaf Deposited Dust in Anand City, India,” Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 5, 2011, pp. 61-66.
[4] A. Chaterjee and R. N. Banerjee, “Determination of Lead and Other Metals in a Residential Area of Greater Calcutta,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 227, No. 2-3, 1999, pp. 175-185. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00026-1
[5] A. D. K. Banerjee, “Heavy Metal Levels and Solid Phase Speciation in Street Dusts of Delhi, India,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 123, No. 1, 2003, pp. 95-105. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00337-8
[6] Q. M. Jaradat and K. A. Momani, “Contamination of Roadside Soil, Plants, and Air with Heavy Metals in Jordan, A Comparative Study,” Turkish Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 23, 1999, pp. 209-220.
[7] M. L. Jackson, “Soil Chemical Analysis,” Y. Eagle Wood Cliff, New York, 1958, p. 498.
[8] Y. Faiz, M. Tufail, M. T. Javed, M. M. Chaudhry and N. Siddique, “Road Dust Pollution of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn along Islamabad Expressway, Pakistan,” Microchemical Journal, Vol. 92, No. 2, 2009, pp. 186-192. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2009.03.009
[9] O. Al-Khashman, “Determination of Metal Accumulation in Deposited Street Dusts in Amman, Jordan,” Environmental Geochemistry and Health, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2007, pp. 1-10. doi:10.1007/s10653-006-9067-8
[10] S. Jamil, P. C. Abhilash, A. Singh, N. Singh and H. M. Behl, “Fly Ash Trapping and Metal Accumulating Capacity of Plants Implication for Green Belt around Thermal Power Plants,” Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 92, No. 2, 2009, pp. 136-147. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2009.04.002
[11] E. De-Miguel, J. E. Llamas, E. Chacon and L. F. Mazadiego, “Sources and Pathways of Trace Elements in Urban Environments a Multi Elemental Qualitative Approach,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 235, No. 1-3, 1990, pp. 355-357.
[12] X. Li and L. M. Shuman, “Heavy Metal Movement in Metal Contaminated Soil Profiles,” Soil Science, Vol. 161, No. 10, 1996, pp. 656-666. doi:10.1097/00010694-199610000-00003
[13] W. Fabis, “Schadstoftbelastung von Boden-Auswirkurgen auf Boden-und wasserqalitat AllgFarstzeitsehr,” BLV Verlaggesellshaft, Munich, 1987, pp. 128-131.
[14] M. Yazdi and N. Behzad, “Heavy Metal Contamination and Distribution in the Parks City of Islam Shahr, SW Tehran, Iran,” The Open Environmental Pollution & Toxicology Journal, Vol. 1, 2009, pp. 49-53.
[15] A. J. Alhassan, M. S. Sule, M. K. Atiku, A. M. Wudil, M. A. Dangambo, J. A. Mashi and N. A. Ibrahim, “Study of Correlation between Heavy Metal Concentration, Street Dust and Level of Traffic in Major Roads of Kano Metropolis, Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2012, pp. 161-168.
[16] D. Y. Shinggu, V. O. Ogugbuaja, J. T. Barminas and I. Toma, “Analysis of Street Dust for Heavy Metal Pollutants in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria,” International Journal of Physical Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 11, 2007, pp. 290-293.
[17] H. Yongming, D. Peixuan, C. Junji and E. Posmentier, “Multivariate Analysis of Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban Dusts in Xi’an, Central China,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 355, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 176-186. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.02.026
[18] A. Addo, E. O. Darko, C. Gordon, B. J. B. Nyarko and J. K. Gbadago, “Heavy Metal Concentrations in Road Deposited Dust at Ketu-South District, Ghana,” International Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012, pp. 28-39.
[19] V. Divrikli, M. Soylak, L. Elic and M. Dogan, “Trace Heavy Metal Levels in Street Dust Samples from Yazgat City Center, Turkey,” Proceeding of 5th Scientific Environmental Conference, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2003, pp. 351-361.
[20] S. Charlesworth, M. Everett, R. McCarthy, A. Ordonez and E. De Miguel, “A Comparative Study of Heavy Metal Contamination and Distribution in Deposited Street Dust in a Large and a Small Urban Area: Birmingham and Coventry, West Midlands, UK,” Environment International, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2003, pp. 563-573. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00015-1
[21] S. M. El-Shayep and M. R. D. Seaward, “Heavy Metal Content of Roadside Soils along Ring Road in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia),” Asian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2001, pp. 407-423.
[22] S. Basha, J. Jhala, R. Thorat, S. Goel, R. Trivedi, K. Shah, G. Menon, P. Gaur, K. H. Mody and B. Jha, “Assessment of Heavy Metal Content in Suspended Particulate Matter of Coastal Industrial Town, Mithapur, Gujarat, India,” Atmospheric Research, Vol. 97, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 257-265.
[23] M. N. Ambulkar, N. L. Chutke, A. N. Aggarwal and A. N. Garg, “Multielemental Analysis of Ambient Air Dust Particulates from a Cement Factory by Neutron Activation,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 141, No. 1-3, 1994, pp. 93-101. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(94)90021-3
[24] K. K. Turekian and K. H. Wedepohl, “Distribution of the Elements in Some Major Units of the Earth’s Crust,” Bulletin of Geological Society of America, Vol. 72, No. 2, 1961, pp. 175-192.
[25] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, “Toxicological Profile for Chromium,” US Department of Health and Human Service public Health Service, Atlanta, 2000.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.