Share This Article:

Coping Strategies and Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Management in Older Mexican Adults

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:133KB) PP. 39-44
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.46A1006    3,843 Downloads   5,624 Views   Citations


Diabetes Mellitus 2 (DM2) affects 20% of the elderly population in Mexico, causes disability and death, and demands many life-style changes. Since DM2 control is largely responsibility of the patient, management itself is source of stress. Coping is a process by which persons face stressful situations, and active coping have proved being effective in disease control. Social-cognitive perspective suggests that self-efficacy believes can regulate human functioning, therefore they could promote specific coping if relations between them are found. The study aim was to examine the association between coping strategies and self-efficacy in DM2 management in a group of 126 Mexican adults over 54 years old (= 68.57, SD = 7.19), which answered an interview about sociodemographics data, self-efficacy in diabetes and coping strategies. The most common kind of coping used by the sample was self-recreation (= 50.41, SD = 19.50) and religious faith (= 50.04, SD = 17.65), and in self-efficacy the domain of taking the medicines had the greater score (= 90.25, SD = 16.08). Total score in self-efficacy had significant correlations with active coping (r = .402, p ≤ .01) and self-recreation (r = .291, p ≤ .01). We concluded that there are relationships between self-efficacy beliefs in diabetes management and active coping. The correlation found can be used to guide future interventions with these patients, but the relation should be studied deeper for directional search, if is proved that DM self-efficacy beliefs enhance active coping; self-efficacy based interventions should be promote.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Hattori-Hara, M. & González-Celis, A. (2013). Coping Strategies and Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Management in Older Mexican Adults. Psychology, 4, 39-44. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.46A1006.


[1] American Association of Diabetes Educator (2011a). AADE 7TM self-care behaviors American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) position statement.
[2] American Association of Diabetes Educator (2011b). Guidelines for the practice of diabetes education.
[3] American Diabetes Association (2001). Diabetes and the elderly. Clinical Diabetes, 19, 176. doi:10.2337/diaclin.19.4.176
[4] Annesi, J. J. (2011). Moderation of fatigue and stress in the carry-over of self-regulation and self-efficacy for exercise to self-regulation and self-efficacy for managed eating. Psychology, 2, 694-699. doi:10.4236/psych.2011.27106
[5] Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of eontrol. Freeman and Company.
[6] Bandura, A. (Ed.) (1999). Auto-eficacia: Cómo afrontamos los cambios de la sociedad actual? Espana: Desclée De Brouwer.
[7] Bandura, A. (2004). The growing primacy of perceive efficacy in human self-development, adaptation and change. In M. Salanova, R. Graw, I. Martinez, E. Cifre, S. Llorens, & M. Garcia-Renedo (Eds.), Nuevos horizontes en la investigación sobre la auto-eficacia. Castelló de la Plana: Universitat Jaume.
[8] Barua, A., Gosh, M. K., Karl, N., & Basilio, M. A. (2011). Prevalence of depressive disorders in the elderly. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 31, 640-624. doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87100
[9] Bazo, M., Garcia, S., Maiztegui, O., & Martinez, P. (1999). Envejecimiento y sociedad: Una perspectiva internacional. Madrid: Médica Panamericana.
[10] Carver, C. S, Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267-283. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.56.2.267
[11] Cornell, S., & Briggs, S. (2004). Newer treatment strategies for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 17, 49-54. doi:10.1177/0897190003261308
[12] Del Castillo, A. (2010). Apoyo social, síntomas depresivos, auto-eficacia y bienestar psicológico en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Ph.D. Thesis, México DF: Facultad de Psicología, UNAM.
[13] Duangdao, K. M., & Roesch, S. C. (2008). Coping with diabetes in adulthood: A meta-analysis. Journal of Behavior Medicine, 31, 291-300. doi:10.1007/s10865-008-9155-6
[14] Ellis, D., Naar-King, S., Frey, M., Templin, T., Rowland, M., & Greger, N. (2004). Use of multisystemic therapy to improve regimen adherence among adolescents with type1 diabetes in poor metabolic control: A pilot investigation. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 11, 1746-1747. doi:10.1023/B:JOCS.0000045351.98563.4d
[15] Ephrem, F. (1986). A classification system of cognitive coping strategies for pain. Pain, 26, 141-151. doi:10.1016/0304-3959(86)90070-9
[16] Fisher, E., Thorpe, C., McEvoy, B., & DeVellis, R. (2007). Healthy coping, negative emotions, and diabetes management: A systematic review and appraisal. The Diabetes Educator, 33, 1080-1103. doi:10.1177/0145721707309808
[17] Froján M., & Rubio, R. (2004). Análisis discriminante de la adhesión al tratamiento en la diabetes mellitus insulinodependiente. Psicothema, 16, 548-554.
[18] Gillibrand, R., & Stevenson, J. (2006). The extended health belief model applied to the experience of diabetes in young people. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 155-169. doi:10.1348/135910705X39485
[19] González-Celis, A. L. (2002). Efectos de intervención de un programa de promoción a la salud sobre la calidad de vida en ancianos. Tesis de Doctorado en Psicología, México DF: Facultad de Psicología, UNAM.
[20] González-Celis, A. L. (2005). Cómo mejorarla calidad de vida y el bienestar subjetivo de los ancianos? In: L. Garduno, B. Salinas, & M. Rojas, (Eds.), Calidad de Vida y bienestar subjetivo en México (pp. 259-294). México: Plaza y Valdéz.
[21] Gutiérrez, L. (2004). La salud del anciano en México y la nueva epidemiología del envejecimiento.
[22] Haire, D. (1996). Management of diabetes mellitus. Maryland Heights: Mosby.
[23] Horton, E., Cefalu, W., Haines, S., & Siminerio, L. (2008). Multidisciplinary interventions: Mapping new horizonts in diabetes care. The Diabetes Educator, 34, 78S-89S. doi:10.1177/0145721708321148
[24] International Diabetes Federation (2012). IDF diabetes atlas.
[25] Kanbara, S., Taniguchi, H., Sakaue, M., Wang, D. H., Takaki, J., Yajima, Y. et al. (2008). Social support, self-efficacy and psychological stress responses among outpatients with diabetes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 80, 56-62. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2007.12.015
[26] Katz, J., Ritvo, P., Irvine, M. J., & Jackson, M. (1996). Coping with cronic pain. In M. Zeidner, & N. Endler (Eds.), Handbook of coping. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
[27] Krein, S., Heisler, M., Piette, J., Butchart, A., & Kerr, E. (2007). Overcoming the influence of chronic pain on older patients’ difficulty with recommended self-management activities. The Gerontologist, 47, 61-68. doi:10.1093/geront/47.1.61
[28] Latin American Diabetes Association (2008). Guía de diagnóstico, control y tratamiento de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2. Washington: Organización Panamericana de la Salud.
[29] Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer
[30] Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1991). Estrés y procesos cognitivos. México: Martínez Roca.
[31] Lazarus, R. S. (1993). Coping theory and research: Past, present and future. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 234-247.
[32] Lazarus, R. S. (2000). Estrés y emoción. Manejo e implicaciones en nuestra salud. Bilbao: Desclée de Brouwer.
[33] Monfort, E., & Tréhel, G. (2012). Classification of coping styles in a population of aging veterans. Annales Médico-Psychologiques, Revue Psychiatrique, 9, 636-641. doi:10.1016/j.amp.2012.05.017
[34] Muthny, V. (n.d.). Freiburger frageboben zur krankheitsverarbeitung. http://www.testzentrale.del/?mod=detail&id=550
[35] National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatic [INEGI] (2005). La diversidad religiosa en México. INEGI: Aguascalientes.
[36] National Population Council (2010). De la población en México 2005-2050. Datos nacionales.
[37] National System of Health Information (2005). Defunciones y tasa de mortalidad general por ano de registro 2000-2005.
[38] Olaiz, G., Rojas, R., Barquera, S., Shamah, T., Aguilar, C., Cravioto, P. et al. (2003). Encuesta nacional de salud 2000. Tomo 2. La salud de los adultos. México: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública.
[39] Ortiz, M., Ortiz, E., Gatica, A., & Gómez, D. (2011). Factores psicosociales asociados a la adherencia al tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Terapia Psicológica, Sociedad Chilena de Psicología Clínica, 29, 5-11. doi:10.4067/S0718-48082011000100001
[40] Oviedo-Gómez, M. (2007). Modelo multidimensional del automanejo conductual de la diabetes tipo 2 basado en la participación familiar. Ph.D. Thesis, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Psicología, Ciudad Universitaria.
[41] Pérez, P. (2003). Guía para el paciente y el educador en diabetes. México: FES Iztacala.
[42] Riveros, A., Cortazar-Palapa, J., Alcazar, F., & Sánchez-Sosa, J. (2005). Efectos de una intervención cognitivo-conductual en la calidad de vida, ansiedad, depresión y condición médica de pacientes diabéticos e hipertensos esenciales. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 5, 445-462.
[43] Romero-Martínez, M., Shamah-Levy, T., Franco-Núnez, A., Villalpando, S., Cuevas-Nasu, Rivera-Dommarco, J., & Gutiérrez, J. P. (2012). Encuesta nacional de salud y nutrición 2012. Base de datos del cuestionario individual: Adultos de 20 o más anos de edad SPSS.
[44] Rose, M., Hildebrandt, M., Fliege, H., Klapp, B. F., & Schirop, T. (2002). The network of psychological variables in patients with diabetes and their importance for quality of life and metabolic control. Diabetes Care, 25, 35-42. doi:10.2337/diacare.25.1.35
[45] Samuel-Hodge, C. D., Watkins, D. C., Rowell, K. L., & Hooten E. G. (2008). Coping styles, well-being, and self-care behaviors among African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educator, 34, 501-510. doi:10.1177/0145721708316946
[46] Schokker, M. C., Links, T. P., Bouma, J., Keers, J. C., Sanderman, R. et al. (2011). The role of overprotection by partner in coping with diabetes: A moderate mediation model. Psychology Health, 26, 95-111. doi:10.1080/08870440903342325
[47] Schwarzer, R., & Schwarzer, C. (1996). A critical survey of coping instruments. In M. Zeidner, & N. Endler (Eds.), Handbook of coping. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
[48] Steed, L., Lankester, J., Barnard, M., Earle, K., Hurel, S., & Newman, S. (2005). Evaluation of the UCL Diabetes self-management programme (UCL-DSMP): A randomized control trial. Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 261-276. doi:10.1177/1359105305049775
[49] Thoolen, B., Ridder, D., Bensing, J., Gorter, K., & Rutten, G. (2008). Beyond good intentions: The development and evaluation of a proactive self-management course for patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Health Education Research, 23, 53-61. doi:10.1093/her/cyl160
[50] United Nations (2002). World population aging: 1950-2050.
[51] Villalpando, S., Cruz, V., Rojas, R., Shamah-Levy, T., ávila, M. A., Gaona, B. et al. (2010). Prevalence and distribution of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexican adult population. A probabilistic survey. Salud Pública de México, 52, 19-26. doi:10.1590/S0036-36342010000700005
[52] Wagner, J., & Tennen, H. (2007). Coping with diabetes: Psychological determinants of diabetes outcomes. In E. Martz, & H. Livneh (Eds). Coping with chronic illness and disability. Theoretical, empirical, and clinical aspects. New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-48670-3_11
[53] Zúniga, E., García, J., & Partida V. (2004). Mortalidad de la población de 60 anos o más.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.