A GIS-Based DRASTIC Model for Assessing Phreatic Aquifere of Bekalta (Tunisian Sahel)


The phreatic aquifer of Bekalta experienced a progressive degradation of water resources over time: using increasingly important waters for irrigation and drinking water, nitrate pollution, salinization... This aquifer is of great economic importance because it is used for irrigation and domestic consumption. Vulnerability map to nitrate pollution is a necessary tool to developing management to preserve the quality of groundwater. This study utilized the Geographic Information System technique and the DRASTIC model to assess the vulnerability of groundwater resources to contamination. The Geographic Information System (GIS) technology represents the best method to solve the main problems in the vulnerability survey. Indeed is allowed for swift organisation, quantification, and interpretation of large volumes of hydrological data with computer accuracy and minimal risk of human errors. The Visio model was exported and loaded into an ESRI Geodatabase in ArcCatalog as defined by the UML model. The purpose of this geodatabase is data harmonization process within modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution. The resulting map shows evidence for three categories of vulnerability (low, middle and high). The resultant vulnerability map showed the predominant of moderately vulnerability class on the most of the Bekalta region which occupying an area of 68%. The low and high groundwater vulnerability classes occupy respectively an area of 30% and 2% of the total surface of the study area.

Share and Cite:

A. Hanini, A. Added and S. Abdeljaoued, "A GIS-Based DRASTIC Model for Assessing Phreatic Aquifere of Bekalta (Tunisian Sahel)," Journal of Geographic Information System, Vol. 5 No. 3, 2013, pp. 242-247. doi: 10.4236/jgis.2013.53023.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] US EPA, “Wellhead Protection: A Guide for Small Communities,” Office of Research and Development, Office of Water, Washington DC, 1993.
[2] World Health Organization, “Health Hazards from Nitrates in Drinking Water,” WHO, Regional office for Europe.
[3] CRDA Monastir, “Agricultural Map of Monastir,” Directorate of Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture of Tunisia, Tunis, 2007.
[4] A. Rahman, “A GIS Based DRASTIC Model for Assessing Groundwater Vulnerability in Shallow Aquifer in Aligarh, India,” Applied Geography, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2008, p. 32e53.
[5] L. Aller, T. Bennet, J. H. Leher, R. J. Petty and G. Hackett, “DRASTIC: A Standardized System For Evaluating Ground Water Pollution Potential Using Hydrogeological Settings,” EPA 600/2-87-035, 1987, p. 622.
[6] A. Singh, T. Jones, J. Pickens and R. M. Holt, “WRVAT: A Comprehensive GIS-Based Water Resources Vulnerability Assessment Tool,” Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, Vol. 62, 2012, pp. 615-618.
[7] D.Ben Salah, M. Besbes, G. De Marsily, L. Moullard and H. Zebidi, “Artificial Recharge Wells for Regeneration and Conservation of Coastal Aquifer Teboulba,” 3rd International Symposium on Groundwater, Palermo, 1975, p. 10.
[8] R. Amri, “Note on Water Resources in the Prefecture of Monastir,” Internal Report, DGRE of Tunisia, Tunis, 1990, p. 11.
[9] INM (National Institute of Meteorology), “Monthly Climatological Tables,” Station of Monastir, Tunis, 2007.
[10] DGRE (General Directorate of Water Resources), “Piezometric Directory of Tunisia,” DGRE, Tunis, 2007.
[11] CRDA Monastir, “Notes Relating to the Internal Data of Agricultural Activities of the Prefecture of Monastir,” Ministry of Agriculture, Tunis, 1999.
[12] K. A. Musa, J. M. Akhir and I. Abdullah, “Groundwater Prediction Potential Zone in Langat Basin Using the Integration of Remote Sensing and GIS,” 2000. www.GISdevelopment.net
[13] J. R. Williams and D. E. Kissel, “Water Percolation: An Indicator of Nitrogen-leaching Potential in Managing Nitrogen for Groundwater Quality and Farm Profitability,” In: R. F. Follett, D. R. Keeney and R. M. Cruse, Eds., Soil Science Society of America, Madison Inc., Wisconsin, 1991, pp. 59-83.
[14] A. Ferjani and R. Amri, “Report of Work Completion of Drilling: Groundwater Level of Téboulba Aquifer, Prefecture of Monastir,” Internal Report No. 18951/4, 1992, p. 6.
[15] OTC (Office of Topography and Cartography), “Topographic Map of Tunisia 1:50,000,” Sheet of Moknine No. 66, Tunis, 1994.
[16] R. Rodriguez, R. Reyes, J. Rosales, J. Berlin, J. A. Mejia and A. Ramos, “Structuring of Thematic Maps of Groundwater Vulnerability Indices of the Urban Area of Salamanca Gto., City of Salamanca,” CEAG, IGF-UNAM Technical Report, Mexico, 2001, p. 120,
[17] B. A. Engel, K. C. S. Navulur, B. S. Cooper and L. Hahn, “Estimating Groundwater Vulnerability to Non-Point Source Pollution from Nitrates and Pesticides on a Regional Scale,” IAHS Publication, 1996, pp. 521-526.
[18] R. C. Gogu and A. Dassargues, “Current trends and Future Challenges in Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Using Overlay and Index Methods,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 39, No. 6, 2000, pp. 549-559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002540050466

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.