Hydraulic Characteristics and Suspended Sediment Loads during Spring Breakup in Several Streams Located on the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, USA

DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.42028   PDF   HTML     3,293 Downloads   4,900 Views   Citations

Abstract

This article presents results from a broad field campaign involving discharge and surface-water slope measurements, water sampling, and longitudinal river-bed profile surveys. During the spring breakup of 2011, fieldwork was carried out in several pristine streams located in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska; the studied streams cover two main regions: 1) foothills (Ikpikpuk River, Seabee Creek, Prince Creek, and Otuk Creek); 2) coastal plain (Fish Creek, Judy Creek, and Ublutuoch River). Reported data includes basic geometric and hydraulic characteristics such as channel width and depth, cross-sectional area, average velocity, friction factor, shear stress, suspended sediment concentrations from autosamplers and grab samples, and dune dimensions and steepness ratios. The measured discharge in different streams ranged from 2 to 853 m3/s, which corresponded to post-breakup and near peak conditions, respectively. The temporal variation of Manning’s n was in phase with measured discharge, with high values of n associated with the presence of floating ice during the measurements. Calculations indicate that sediment particle sizes ≤2 mmmoved during the measurements. In general, variations in discharge were accompanied by changes in suspended sediment concentrations.

 

Share and Cite:

H. Toniolo, D. Vas, P. Prokein, R. Kenmitz, E. Lamb and D. Brailey, "Hydraulic Characteristics and Suspended Sediment Loads during Spring Breakup in Several Streams Located on the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, USA," Natural Resources, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 220-228. doi: 10.4236/nr.2013.42028.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] K. Pye, “Sediment Transport and Depositional Processes,” Blackwell, Oxford, 1994, 397 Pages.
[2] H. Chang, “Fluvial Processes in River Engineering,” Krieger, Malabar, 2002, 432 Pages.
[3] P. Julien, “River Mechanics,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002, 433 Pages. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139164016
[4] J. Bridge, “Rivers and Floodplains: Form, Processes, and Sedimentary Record,” Blackwell, Oxford, 2003, 491 Pages.
[5] ASCE, “Sedimentation Engineering: Processes, Measurements, Modeling and Practice,” In: M. Garcia, Ed., Manual 110, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, 2008, 1132 Pages.
[6] M. Hassan, “Scour, Fill and Burial Depth of Coarse Material in Gravel Bed Streams,” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1990, pp. 341-356. doi:10.1002/esp.3290150405
[7] D. Hicks and P. Mason, “Roughness Characteristics of New Zealand Rivers,” New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland, 1991, 329 Pages.
[8] O. Navratil, M. Albert, E. Herouin and J. Gresillon, “Determination of Bankfull Discharge Magnitude and Frequency: Comparison of Methods on 16 Gravel-Bed River Reaches,” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 31, No. 11, 2006, pp. 1345-1363. doi:10.1002/esp.1337
[9] U. Ji, P. Julien and S. Park, “Sediment Flushing at the Nakdong River Estuary Barrage,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 137, No. 11, 2011, pp. 1522-1535. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000395
[10] G. Ashton, “River and Lake Ice Engineering,” Water Resources Publications, Littleton, 1986, 485 Pages.
[11] T. Prowse, “Suspended Sediment Concentration during River Ice Breakup,” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 20, No. 5, 1993, pp. 872-875. doi:10.1139/l93-113
[12] S. Beltaos and B. Burrel, “Suspended Sediment Concentration in the S. John River during Ice Breakup,” Proceedings of Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, Annual Conference, Toronto, 7-10 June 2000, pp. 235-242.
[13] A. Shiklomanov, T. Yakovlera, R. Lammers, I. Karasev, C. Vorosmarty and E. Linder, “Cold Region Reiver Discharge Uncertainty—Estimates from Large Russian Rivers,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 326, No. 1-4, 2006, pp. 231-256. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.10.037
[14] J. McNamara, J. Oatley, D. Kane and L. Hinzman, “Case Study of a Large Summer Flood on the North Slope of Alaska: Bedload Transport,” Hydrology Research, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2008, pp. 299-308. doi:10.2166/nh.2008.006
[15] M. Mikhailova, “Hydrological Processes at an Arctic River Mouth: Case Study of the Colville River, Alaska, USA,” Water Resources, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2009, pp. 26-42. doi:10.1134/S0097807809010035
[16] H. Toniolo, J. Derry, K. Irving and W. Schnabel, “Hydraulic and Sedimentological Characterizations of a Reach on the Anaktuvuk River, Alaska,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 136, No. 11, 2010, pp. 935-939. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000265
[17] R. Ettema and E. Kempema, “River-Ice Effects on GravelBed Channels,” In: M. Church, P. Biron and A. Roy, Eds., Gravel-Bed Rivers: Processes, Tools, Environments, WileyBlackwell, Oxford, 2012, pp. 525-540.
[18] T. Prowse, K. Alfredsen, S. Beltaos, B. Bonsal, C. Duguay, A. Korhola, J. McNamara, V. Warwick, V. Vuglinsky and G. Weyhenmeyer, “Arctic Freshwater Ice and Its Climatic Role,” Ambio, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2011, pp. 46-52. doi:10.1007/s13280-011-0214-9
[19] E. Attanasi and P. Freeman, “Economic Analysis of the 2010 US Geological Survey Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska,” US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1103, 2011, 64 Pages.
[20] D. Kane, J. McNamara, D. Yang, P. Olsson and R. Gieck, “An Extreme Rainfall/Runoff Event in Arctic Alaska,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1220-1228. doi:10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1220:AEREIA>2.0.CO;2
[21] L. Bowling, D. Kane, R. Gieck, L. Hinzman and D. Lettenmaier, “The Role of Surface Storage in a Low-Gradient Arctic Watershed,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2003, 1087. doi:10.1029/2002WR001466
[22] D. Mueller and C. Wagner, “Measuring Discharge with Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers from a Moving Boat,” USGS techniques and Methods 3A-22, 2009, 72 Pages.
[23] ASTM, “Standard D3977-97,” ASTM Website, 2009. www.astem.org
[24] ASTM, “Standard C136-06,” ASTM Website, 2010. www.astem.org
[25] E. Gaume, M. Livet, M. Desbordes and J. Villeneuve, “Hydrological Analysis of the River Aude, France, Flash Flood on 12 and 13 November 1999,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 286, No. 1-4, 2004, pp. 135-154. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2003.09.015
[26] M. Rico, G. Benito and A. Barnolas, “Combined Paleoflood and Rainfall-Runoff Assessment of Mountain Floods (Spanish Pyrenees),” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 245, No. 1-4, 2001, pp. 59-72. doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(01)00339-0
[27] R. Kidson, K. Richards and P. Carling, “Hydraulic Model Calibration Using A Modern Flood Event: The Mae Chaem River, Thailand,” Proceedings of the PHEFRA Workshop, Barcelona, 16-19 October 2002, pp. 171-176.
[28] S. Samarasinghea, H. Nandalalb, D. Weliwitiyac, J. Fowzed, M. Hazarikad and S. Samarakoond, “Application of Remote Sensing and GIS for Flood Risk Analysis: A Case Study at Kalu-Ganga River, Sri Lanka,” International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science, Vol. XXXVIII, Pt. 8, 2010, pp. 110-115.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.