Design and Implementation of Multilevel Access Control in Synchronized Audio to Audio Steganography Using Symmetric Polynomial Scheme
Jeddy Nafeesa Begum, Krishnan Kumar, Vembu Sumathy
DOI: 10.4236/jis.2010.11004   PDF   HTML     4,482 Downloads   8,809 Views   Citations


Steganography techniques are used in Multimedia data transfer to prevent adversaries from eaves dropping. Synchronized audio to audio steganography deals with recording the secret audio, hiding it in another audio file and subsequently sending to multiple receivers. This paper proposes a Multilevel Access control in Synchronized audio steganography, so that Audio files which are meant for the users of low level class can be listened by higher level users, whereas the vice-versa is not allowed. To provide multilevel access control, symmetric polynomial based scheme is used. The steganography scheme makes it possible to hide the audio in different bit locations of host media without inviting suspicion. The Secret file is embedded in a cover media with a key. At the receiving end the key can be derived by all the classes which are higher in the hierarchy using symmetric polynomial and the audio file is played. The system is implemented and found to be secure, fast and scalable. Simulation results show that the system is dynamic in nature and allows any type of hierarchy. The proposed approach is better even during frequent member joins and leaves. The computation cost is reduced as the same algorithm is used for key computation and descendant key derivation. Steganography technique used in this paper does not use the conventional LSB’s and uses two bit positions and the hidden data occurs only from a frame which is dictated by the key that is used. Hence the quality of stego data is improved.

Share and Cite:

J. Begum, K. Kumar and V. Sumathy, "Design and Implementation of Multilevel Access Control in Synchronized Audio to Audio Steganography Using Symmetric Polynomial Scheme," Journal of Information Security, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2010, pp. 29-40. doi: 10.4236/jis.2010.11004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] W. Stallings, Ed., “Network and Internetworking Securi-ty,” Pearson Education Asia, Singapore, 2001.
[2] N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric and S. Jajodia, “Information Hiding Steganography and Watermarking-Attacks and Countermeasures,” Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2001.
[3] F. A. P. Petitcolas, R. J. Anderson and M. G. Kuhn, “In-formation Hiding - A Survey,” Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 87, No. 7, 1999, pp. 1062-1078.
[4] M. Hosei, “Acoustic Data Hiding Method Using Sub- Band Phase Shifting,” Technical Report of IEICE, EA, Vol. 106, No. 205, 2006, pp. 7-11.
[5] M. Wu and B. D. Liu, “Multimedia Data Hiding,” Sprin-ger-Verlag, New York, 2003.
[6] T. Aoki and N. Homma, “A Band Widening Technique for VoIP Speech Using Steganography Technology,” Report of IEICE, SP, Vol. 106, No. 333, 2006, pp. 31-36.
[7] X. P. Huang, R. Kawashima, N. Segawa and Y. Abe, “The Real-Time Steganography Based on Audio-to-Au- dio Data Bit Stream,” Technical Report of IEICE, ISEC, Vol. 106, No. 235, September 2006, pp. 15-22.
[8] X. P. Huang, R. Kawashima, N. Segawa and Y. Abe, “Design and Implementation of Synchronized Audio-to- Audio Steganography Scheme,” IEEE Explore, 2008, pp. 331-334.
[9] S. G. Akl and P. D. Taylor, “Cryptographic Solution to a Problem of Access Control in a Hierarchy,” ACM Trans-actions on Computer Systems, Vol. 1, No. 3, March 1983, pp. 239-247.
[10] S. J. MacKinnon, P. D. Taylor, H. Meijer and S. G. Akl, “An Optimal Algorithm for Assigning Cryptographic Keys to Control Access in a Hierarchy,” IEEE Transac-tions on Computers, Vol. 34, No. 9, September 1985, pp. 797-802.
[11] S. Chen, Y.-F. Chung and C.-S. Tian, “A Novel Key Management Scheme for Dynamic Access Control in a User Hierarchy,” COMPSAC, September 2004, pp. 396-397.
[12] I. Ray, I. Ray and N. Narasimhamurthi, “A Cryptographic Solution to Implement Access Control in a Hierarchy and More,” SACMAT’02: Proceedings of the 7th ACM Sym-posium on Access Control Models and Technologies, ACM Press, New York, 2002, pp. 65-73.
[13] R. S. Sandhu, “Cryptographic Implementation of a Tree Hierarchy for Access Control,” Information Processing Letter, Vol. 27, Vol. 2, February 1988, pp. 95-98.
[14] G. C. Chick and S. E. Tavares, “Flexible Access Control with Master Keys,” Proceedings on Advances in Cryp-tology: CRYPTO’89, LNCS, Vol. 435, 1989, pp. 316-322.
[15] M. L. Das, A. Saxena, V. P. Gulati and D. B. Phatak, “Hierarchical Key Management Scheme Using Polynomial Interpolation,” SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, Vol. 39, No. 1, January 2005, pp. 40-47.
[16] L. Harn and H. Y. Lin, “A Cryptographic Key Generation Scheme for Multilevel Data Security,” Computers and Security, Vol. 9, No. 6, October 1990, pp. 539-546.
[17] V. R. L. Shen and T.-S. Chen, “A Novel Key Manage-ment Scheme Based on Discrete Logarithms and Poly-nomial Interpolations,” Computers and Security, Vol. 21, No. 2, March 2002, pp. 164-171.
[18] M.-S. Hwang, C.-H. Liu and J.-W. Lo, “An Efficient Key Assignment for Access Control in Large Partially Ordered Hierarchy,” Journal of Systems and Software, February 2004.
[19] C. H. Lin, “Dynamic Key Management Scheme for Access Control in a Hierarchy,” Computer Communica-tions, Vol. 20, No. 15, December 1997, pp. 1381-1385.
[20] S. Zhong, “A Practical Key Management Scheme for Access Control in a User Hierarchy,” Computers and Se-curity, Vol. 21, No. 8, November 2002, pp. 750-759.
[21] X. Zou, B. Ramamurthy and S. Magliveras, “Chinese Remainder Theorem Based Hierarchical Access Control for Secure Group Communications,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), Vol. 2229, November 2001, pp. 381-385.
[22] X. Zou, B. Ramamurthy and S. S. Magliveras, Eds., “Se-cure Group Communications over Data Networks,” Springer, New York, October 2004.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.