Share This Article:

Evaluation by ICP-MS of Essential, Nonessential and Toxic Elements in Brazilian Fish and Seafood Samples

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:190KB) PP. 1252-1260
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.39165    4,927 Downloads   7,531 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Fish is considered one of the healthiest foods due to the high levels of several important cardioprotective compounds such as long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. However, due to widespread environmental pollution, high levels of contaminants may also be present in fish and seafood samples, which may counteract the beneficial effects of consumption of this food. With this in mind, the aims of this study were: 1) to examine both toxic and essential chemical elements in seafood and river and sea fish samples sold in different Brazilian regions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS); 2) to estimate the daily intake of these chemical elements by Brazilians. The toxic elements Ba, Cd, Pb, Sr, V and Sb were found in higher concentrations in seafood than in either sea or river fish, while As concentrations were higher in both seafood and sea fish than in river fish. On the other hand, Hg levels were higher in river and sea fish. Concentrations of the essential chemical elements Co, Mn, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn and Mo were significantly higher in seafood compared with both sorts of fish except for Se, whose levels were similar in seafood and sea fish. Daily intake of all chemical elements was estimated on the basis of a calculation of the amount of fish consumed by Brazilian households (mean fish and seafood consumption of 11.0 g/person/day). The amount of toxic element in fish and seafood did not represent a risk for the Brazilian people. Moreover, fish and seafood seem to be a good source of selenium.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

D. Grotto, B. Batista, M. Carneiro and F. Barbosa Jr., "Evaluation by ICP-MS of Essential, Nonessential and Toxic Elements in Brazilian Fish and Seafood Samples," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 9, 2012, pp. 1252-1260. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.39165.

References

[1] “Dietary Guidelines for Americans.” US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010.
[2] H. O. Bang, J. Dyerberg and H. M. Sinclair, “The Composition of the Eskimo Food in Northwestern Greenland,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 33, 1980, pp. 2657-2661.
[3] D. N. Carroll and M. T. Roth, “Evidence for the CardioProtective Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids,” The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 36, 2002, pp. 1950-1956. doi:10.1345/aph.1A314
[4] A. P. Simopoulos, “Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and autoimmune diseases,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 21, No. 6, 2002, pp. 495-505.
[5] C. Afonso, H. M. Louren?o, C. Pereira, M. F. Martins, M. L. Carvalho, M. Castro and M. L. Nunes, “Total and Organic Mercury, Selenium and a-Tocopherol in Some Deep-Water Fish Species,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 88, 2008, pp. 2543-2550. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3379
[6] S. Serini, E. Piccioni, C. Rinaldi, D. Mostra, G. Damiani and G. Calviello, “Fish from an Artificial Lake: n-3 PUFA Content and Chemical-Physical and Ecological Features of the Lake,” Journal of Food Composition and Analyses, Vol. 23, 2010, pp. 133-141. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2009.08.010
[7] M. Harada, “Minamata Disease: Methylmercury Poisoning in Japan Caused by Environmental Pollution,” Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Vol. 25, No 1, 1995, pp. 1-24. doi:10.3109/10408449509089885
[8] C. R. Estrellan and F. Iino, “Toxic Emissions from Open Burning,” Chemosphere, Vol. 80, 2010, pp. 193-207. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.03.057
[9] O. Malm, W. C. Pfeiffer, C. M. M. Souza and R. Reuther, “Mercury Pollution Due to Gold Mining in the Madeira River Basin, Brazil,” Ambio, Vol. 19, 1990, pp. 11-15.
[10] M. Roulet and M. Lucotte, “Geochemistry of Mercury in Pristine and Flooded Ferralitic Soils of a Tropical Rain Forest in French Guiana, South America,” Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Vol. 80, 1995, pp. 1079-1088. doi:10.1007/BF01189768
[11] C. J. S. Passos, D. Mergler, M. Lemire, M. Fillion and J. R. D. Guimar?es, “Fish Consumption and Bioindicators of Inorganic Mercury Exposure,” The Science of the total Environmental, Vol. 373, 2007, pp. 68-76. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.11.015
[12] X. Liao, T. B. Chen, H. Xie and Y. R. Liu, “Soil as Contamination and Its Risk Assessment in Areas near the Industrial Districts of Chenzhou City, Southern China,” Environment International, Vol. 31, 2005, pp. 791-798. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2005.05.030
[13] A. Gupta, D. K. Rai, R. S. Pandey and B. Sharma, “Analysis of Some Heavy Metals in the Riverine Water, Sediments and Fish from River Ganges at Allahabad,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 157, 2009, pp. 449-458. doi:10.1007/s10661-008-0547-4
[14] M. M. Storelli, L. Giachi, D. Giungato and A. Storelli, “Occurrence of Heavy Metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Salted Anchovies,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 74, No. 5, 2011, pp. 796-800. doi:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-10-453
[15] United States Food and Drug Administration, “Guidance Document for Arsenic in Shellfish,” Washington DC: US Food and Drug Administration, 1993, pp. 25-27.
[16] J. Tressou, A. Crépet, P. Bertail, M. H. Feinberg and J. Ch. Leblanc, “Probabilistic Exposure Assessment to Food Chemicals Based on Extreme Value Theory. Application to Heavy Metals from Fish and Sea Products”, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 42, No. 8, 2004, pp. 1349-1358. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2004.03.016
[17] B. L. Batista, D. Grotto, J. L. Rodrigues, V. C. O. Souza and F. Barbosa, “Determination of Trace Elements in Biological Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Solubilization at Room Temperature,” Analytical Chimica Acta, Vol. 646, No. 1-2, 2009, pp. 23-29. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2009.05.022
[18] Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística—IBGE, “Aquisi??o Alimentar Domiciliar per Capita Anual, por Grandes Regi?es, Segundo os Produtos, Período 2008-2009,” Brasilia, 2010.
[19] Institute of Medicine—IOM, “Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc,” Washington DC, USA: National Academy Press, 2002.
[20] P. B. P. Kfouri, R. C. L. Figueira, A. M. G. Figueiredo, S. H. M. Souza and B. B. Eichler, “Metal Levels and Foraminifera Occurrence in Sediment Cores from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nucelar Chemistry, Vol. 265, No. 3, 2005, pp. 459-466. doi:10.1007/s10967-005-0849-8
[21] M. Longjiang, F. Qiang, M. Duowen, H. Ke and Y. Jinghong, “Contamination Assessment of Heavy Metal in Surface Sediments of the Wuding River, Northern China,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nucelar Chemistry, Vol. 290, No. 2, 2001, pp. 409-414. doi:10.1007/s10967-011-1227-3
[22] B. Cui, Q. Zhang, K. Zhang, X. Liu and H. Zhang, “Analyzing Trophic Transfer of Heavy Metals for Food Webs in the Newly-Formed Wetlands of the Yellow River Delta, China,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 159, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1297-306. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.01.024
[23] L. Marin-Guirao, J. Llotet and A. Marin, “Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes and Metal Concentration in Food Webs from a Mining-Impacted Coastal Lagoon,” The Science of the Total Environmental, Vol. 393, 2008, pp. 118-130. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.12.023
[24] V. Laura, “Metallothioneins in Aquatic Organisms: Fish, Crustaceans, Molluscs, and Echinoderms,” Metal Ions in Life Sciences, Vol. 5, 2009, pp. 99-237.
[25] S. A. Oustromov, “Some Aspects of Water Filtering Activity of Filter-Feeders,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 542, No. 1, 2005, pp. 275-286. doi:10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1
[26] Z. S. Zhang, X. G. Lu, Q. C. Wang and D. M. Zheng, “Mercury, Cadmium and Lead Biogeochemistry in the Soil-Plant-Insect System in Huludao City,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 83, 2009, pp. 255-259. doi:10.1007/s00128-009-9688-6
[27] D. Grotto, J. Valentini, M. Fillion, C. J. S. Passos, S. C. Garcia, D. Mergler and F. Barbosa Jr., “Mercury Exposure and Oxidative Stress in Communities of the Brazilian Amazon,” The Science of the Total Environmental, Vol. 408, 2010, pp. 806-811. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.053
[28] J. Burger, C. Jeitner and M. Gochfeld, “Locational Differences in Mercury and Selenium Levels in 19 Species of Saltwater Fish from New Jersey,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, Vol. 74, No. 13, 2011, pp. 863-874. doi:10.1080/15287394.2011.570231
[29] M. Tuzen, “Toxic and Essential Trace Elemental Contents in Fish Species from the Black Sea, Turkey,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 47, 2009, pp. 1785-1790. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.04.029
[30] J. Burger, K. F. Gaines, C. S. Boring, W. L. Stephens Jr., J. Snodgrass and M. Gochfeld, “Mercury and Selenium in Fish from the Savannah River: Species, Trophic Level, and Locational Differences,” Environmental Research, Vol. 87, No. 2, 2001, pp. 108-118. doi:10.1006/enrs.2001.4294
[31] S. Nawaz, S. A. Nagra, Y. Saleem and A. Priydarshi, “Determination of Heavy Metals in Fresh Water Fish Species of the River Ravi, Pakistan Compared to Farmed Fish Varieties,” Environment Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 167, 2010, pp. 461-471. doi:10.1007/s10661-009-1064-9
[32] National Research Council, US—NRC, “Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update. Subcommittee on Arsenic in Drinking Water,” National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2001, 225 p.
[33] M. Rose, M. Baxter, N. Brereton and C. Baskaran, “Dietary Exposure to Metals and Other Elements in the 2006 UK Total Diet Study and Some Trends over the Last 30 Years,” Food Additives and Contaminants Part A, Vol. 27, No. 10, 2010, pp. 1380-1404. doi:10.1080/19440049.2010.496794
[34] A. Sepe, L. Ciaralli, M. Ciprotti, R. Giordano, E. Funari and S. Costantini, “Determination of Cadmium, Chromium, Lead and Vanadium in Six Fish Species from the Adriatic Sea,” Food Additives and Contaminants Part A, Vol. 20, No. 6, 2003, pp. 543-552. doi:10.1080/0265203031000069797
[35] T. Guérin, R. Chekri, C. Vastel, V. Sirot, J. C. Volatier, J. C. Leblanc and L. No?l, “Determination of 20 Trace Elements in Fish and Other Seafood from the French Market,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 127, 2011, pp. 934-942. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.061
[36] United States Department of Agriculture—USDA—Nutrient Data Laboratory, 2011. http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/docs.htm?docid=9673
[37] K. V. Dhaneesh, M. Gopi, R. Ganeshamurthy, T. T. A. Kumar and T. Balasubramanian, “Bio-Accumulation of Metals on Reef Associated Organisms of Lakshadweep Archipelago,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 131, No. 3, 2011, pp. 985-991. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.09.097
[38] A. Türkmen, M. Türkmen, Y. Tepe and I. Akyurt, “Heavy Metals in Three Commercially Valuable Fish Species from Iskenderun Bay, Northern East Mediterranean Sea, Turkey,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 91, 2005, pp. 167-172. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.08.008
[39] M. M. Storelli, “Intake of Essential Minerals and Metals via Consumption of Seafood from the Mediterranean Sea,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 72, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1116-1120.
[40] B. Ersoy and M. Celik, “The Essential and Toxic Elements in Tissues of Six Commercial Demersal Fish from Eastern Mediterranean Sea,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 48, No. 5, 2010, pp. 1377-1382. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.03.004
[41] M. Kwoczek, P. Szefer, E. Ha? and M. Grembecka, “Essential and Toxic Elements in Seafood Available in Poland from Different Geographical Regions,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 8, 2006, pp. 3015-3024. doi:10.1021/jf0600511
[42] R. J. Medeiros, L. M. dos Santos, A. S. Freire, R. E. Santelli, A. M. C. B. Braga, T. M. Krauss and S. C. Jacob, “Determination of Inorganic Trace Elements in Edible Marine Fish from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil,” Food Control, Vol. 23, 2012, pp. 535-541. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.08.027
[43] G. Falcó, J. M. Llobet, A. Bocio and J. L. Domingo, “Daily Intake of Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury, and Lead by Consumption of Edible Marine Species”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, 2006, pp. 6106-6112. doi:10.1021/jf0610110
[44] JECFA—Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, 61st meeting, Rome, 2003.
[45] EFSA—European Food Safety Authority Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) “Scientific Opinion on Arsenic in Food”, EFSA Journal Vol. 7, No. 10, 2009, 1351.
[46] Y. Shibata, M. Morita and K. Fuwa, “Selenium and Arsenic in Biology: Their Chemical Forms and Biological Functions,” Advances in Biophysics, Vol. 28, 1992, pp. 31-80. doi:10.1016/0065-227X(92)90022-J
[47] JECFA—Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, 73rd Meeting, Geneva, 2010.
[48] EFSA—European Food Safety Authority Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), “Scientific Opinion on Lead in Food,” EFSA Journal, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010, p. 1570.
[49] World Health Organization—WHO, “Antimony in Drinking Water”, Background Document for Preparation of WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality (WHO/ SDEWSH/03.04/74), Geneva, 2003.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.