Share This Article:

An Expressive Arts-Based and Strength-Focused Experiential Training Program for Enhancing the Efficacy of Teachers Affected by Earthquake in China

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:233KB) PP. 67-74
DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31011    6,473 Downloads   10,541 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The 2008 Sichuan Earthquake killed over 9000 teachers and children leaving profound physical and emotional problems are prevalent among survivors. Many being victims themselves, teachers in the earthquake affected areas not only have to recover a sense of personal efficacy in dealing with the difficulties, they also need to feel adequately prepared in their teaching roles to handle the changes in the classroom environment and student needs. Expressive art is a well-established tool to facilitate the expression of thoughts and feelings that can also be incorporated as interactive classroom activities—an approach that deviates from the traditional top-down teaching mode in China. A 3-day experiential training program based on expressive arts and strength-focused approaches was provided for 57 elementary and high school teachers across the earthquake area. This study evaluated changes after the training program. Results showed that teachers’ general self-efficacy and teaching efficacy were significantly improved (t = 2.54, p = .01; t = 4.08, p = .00). The improvement in teaching efficacy is contingent upon the quality of relationship with students, after controlling for ethnicity.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Ho, R. , Fan, F. , Lai, A. , Lo, P. , Potash, J. , Kalmanowitz, D. , Nan, J. , Pon, A. , Shi, Z. & Chan, C. (2012). An Expressive Arts-Based and Strength-Focused Experiential Training Program for Enhancing the Efficacy of Teachers Affected by Earthquake in China. Creative Education, 3, 67-74. doi: 10.4236/ce.2012.31011.

References

[1] Ahmed, S. H., & Siddiqi, M. N. (2006). Essay healing through art therapy in disaster settings. Lancet, 368, S28-S29. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69916-9
[2] Anderson, N., Onesm D. S., Sinangil, H. K., & Viswesvaran, C. (2002). Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology: Personnel psychology (Vol. 1). London: SAGE.
[3] Ashton, P., & Webb, R. (1986). Making a difference: Teacher sense of efficacy and student achievement. New York: Longman.
[4] Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W H Freeman.
[5] Benight, C. C., & Bandura, A. (2004). Social cognitive theory of post- traumatic recovery: The role of perceived self-efficacy. Behavior Research and Therapy, 42, 1129-1148. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2003.08.008
[6] Chan, C. L. W., Chan, T. H. Y., & Ng, S. M. (2006). The strength- focused and meaning-oriented approach to resilience and transformation (SMART): A body-mind-spirit approach to trauma management. Social Work in Health Care, 43, 9-36. doi:10.1300/J010v43n02_03
[7] Curl, K. (2008). Assessing stress reduction as a function of artistic creation and cognitive focus. Art Therapy: Journal of American Art Therapy Association, 25, 164-169.
[8] Curry, J., Fazio-Griffth, L., Carson, R., & Stewart, L. (2010). Qualitative findings from an experientially designed exercise immunology course: Holistic wellness benefits, self-efficacy gains, and integration of prior course learning. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 4, 1-15.
[9] Dahlman, Y. (2007). Towards a theory that links experience in the arts with the acquisition of knowledge. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 26, 274-284. doi:10.1111/j.1476-8070.2007.00538.x
[10] Foster, M. T. (1992). Experiencing a creative high. Journal of Creative Behavior, 26, 29-39. doi:10.1002/j.2162-6057.1992.tb01154.x
[11] Fowler, C. B. (1996). Strong arts, strong schools: The promising potential and shortsighted disregard of the arts in American schooling. New York: Oxford University Press.
[12] Gaffney, D. A. (2008). Families, schools, and disaster: The mental health consequences of catastrophic events. Family Community Health, 31, 44-53.
[13] Gantt, L., & Tinnin, L. W. (2009). Support for a neurobiological view of trauma with implications for art therapy. The Arts in Psycho- therapy, 36, 148-153. doi:10.1016/j.aip.2008.12.005
[14] Guo, Y., Piasta, S. B., Justice, L. M., & Kaderavek, J. N. (2010). Re- lations among preschool teachers’ self-efficacy, classroom quality, and children’s language and literacy gains. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1094-1103. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2009.11.005
[15] Higgins, L., Xiang, G., & Song, Z. (2010). The development of psychological intervention after disaster in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 1, 77-86. doi:10.1080/21507680903570292
[16] Hooker, J. (2008). Penalty for China quake photos reported. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/31/world/asia/31quake.html
[17] Hughes, J., & Kwok, O. M. (2007). Influence of student-teacher and parent-teacher relationships on lower achieving readers’ engagement and achievement in the primary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 39-51. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.99.1.39
[18] Jasenka, R. (1995). LA '94 earthquake in the eyes of children: Art therapy with elementary school children who were victims of disaster. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 12, 237-243.
[19] Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79, 491-525. doi:10.3102/0034654308325693
[20] Kalmanowitz, D., & Potash, J. S. (2010). Ethical considerations in the global teaching and promotion of art therapy to non-art therapists. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 37, 20-26. doi:10.1016/j.aip.2009.11.002
[21] Kelley, L., & Whatley, A. (1980). Student-teacher relationship in experiential classes and the student’s perception of course effectiveness. Journal of Experiential Learning and Simulation, 2, 9-16.
[22] Klassen, R. M., & Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects on teachers’ self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 741-756. doi:10.1037/a0019237
[23] Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
[24] Kolb, D. A., Boyatzis, R. E., & Mainemelis, C. (2001). Experiential learning theory: Previous research and new directions. In L. Zhang (Ed.), Perspectives on thinking, learning, and cognitive styles (pp. 227-247). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[25] Laird, D. (1985). Approaches to training and development. Reading, Mass: Addison-Welsey.
[26] Lan, H. (2008). Teacher arrested for writing Sichuan earthquake victim slogan. The Epoch times. http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/china/sichuan-earthquake-victims-5217.html
[27] Li, Y., Yang, X., & Shen, J. (2007). The relationship between teachers’ sense of teaching efficacy and job burnout. Psychological Science (China), 30, 952-954.
[28] Macartney, J. (2009). China releases Sichuan earthquake child death toll—but no names. The Sunday Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article6245044.ece
[29] Mathers, J. F. (2006). An exploratory investigation of the interrelation- ships of experiential learning, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and goals in clinical practica students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 66. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2006-99003-067&site=ehost-live&scope=site
[30] Niu, Y., Zhu, F., & Zou, Y. (2009). Psychological survey and intervention after the Wenchuan earthquake in grade 12 students and teachers from Dujiangyan. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 23, 179-182.
[31] Oakley, K. (2008). The art of education: New competencies for the creative workforce. Media International Australia, 128, 137-143.
[32] Ogah, J. K. (2006). Teachers’ efficacy to affect student learning. IFE Psychologia: An International Journal, 14, 16-35.
[33] Oreck, B. (2004). The artistic and professional development of teachers: a study of teachers’ attitudes toward and use of the arts in teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 55, 55-69. doi:10.1177/0022487103260072
[34] Ryan, A. M., & Patrick, H. (2001). The classroom social environment and changes in adolescents’ motivation and engagement during middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 437-460. doi:10.3102/00028312038002437
[35] Saleebey, D. (1996). The strengths perspective in social work practice: Extensions and cautions. Social Work, 41, 296-305.
[36] Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.
[37] Shen, Y. E. (2009). Relationships between self-efficacy, social support and stress coping strategies in Chinese primary and secondary school teachers. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 25, 129-138.
[38] Siu, O., Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., & Lu, C. (2005). Work stress, self-efficacy, Chinese work values, and work well-being in Hong Kong and Beijing. International Journal of Stress Management, 12, 274-288. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.12.3.274
[39] Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom— Reciprocal effects of teacher-behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 571- 581. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.85.4.571
[40] Spencer, R. (2008). China earthquake: Teacher admits leaving pupils behind as he fled Chinese earthquake. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/2064945/China-earthquake-Teacher-admits-leaving-pupils-behind-as-he-fled-Chinese-earthquake.html
[41] Thomas, E., & Mulvey, A. (2008). Using the arts in teaching and learning: Building student capacity for community-based work in health psychology. Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 239-250. doi:10.1177/1359105307086703
[42] Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783-805. doi:10.1016/S0742-051X(01)00036-1
[43] Tschannen-Moran, M., Woolfolk Hoy, A., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68, 202-248.
[44] UNICEF. (2008). Helping quake-affected children cope with trauma in Sichuan province. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/china_44073.html
[45] Walsh, S. M., Martin, S. C., & Schmidt, L. A. (2004). Testing the efficacy of a creative-arts intervention with family caregivers of patients with cancer. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 36, 214-219. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2004.04040.x
[46] Walsh, S. M., Chang, C. Y., Schmidt, L. A., & Yoepp, J. H. (2005). Lowering stress while teaching research: A creative arts intervention in the classroom. Journal of Nursing Education, 44, 330-333.
[47] Wolmer, L., Laor, N., & Yazgan, Y. (2003). School reactivation programs after disaster: could teachers serve as clinical mediators? Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12, 363-381. doi:10.1016/S1056-4993(02)00104-9
[48] Wolmer, L., Laor, N., Dedeoglu, C., Siev, J., & Yazgan, Y. (2005). Teacher-mediated intervention after disaster: a controlled three-year follow-up of children’s functioning. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 1161-1168. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.00416.x
[49] Wolters, C. A., & Daugherty, S. G. (2007). Goal structures and teachers’ sense of efficacy: Their relation and association to teaching experience and academic level. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 181-193. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.99.1.181
[50] Zhang, C., Zeng, N., & Lai, C. (2009). A Survey on teachers’ mental health after Wenchuan earthquake. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZDTJ200905011.htm
[51] Zhang, J. X., & Schwarzer, R. (1995). Measuring optimistic self-beliefs: A Chinese adaptation of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Psychologia, 38, 174-181.
[52] Zhang, Y., Kong, F., Wang, L., Chen, H., Gao, X., Tan, X. et al. (2010). Mental health and coping styles of children and adolescent survivors one year after the 2008 Chinese earthquake. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 1403-1409. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.06.009
[53] Zhao, C., & Kuh, D. (2004). Adding value: Learning communities and student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 45, 115-138. doi:10.1023/B:RIHE.0000015692.88534.de
[54] Zuo, L. (1998). Creativity and aesthetic sense. Creativity Research Journal, 11, 309-313. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1104_4

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.