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Research on the Industrial Technology Road-Mapping Based on the SECI Model

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DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.74005    50 Downloads   91 Views  
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ABSTRACT

Most of the existing researches on the industrial technology road-mapping and knowledge interaction are conceptual and theoretical, and few concrete roadmaps are used to analyze the knowledge interaction activities involved in the technology road-mapping. Based on the SECI model, this paper finds that the industrial technology road-mapping includes a series of knowledge interaction activities through socialization, externalization, combination; and internalization, four patterns of knowledge transfer to create new knowledge. This research expands the theoretical connotation of the industrial technology road-mapping, and has practical implications for the formulation of industrial technology roadmaps.

1. Introduction

During the 1990s, the American Semiconductor Industry Association, with the support of the US government, released the national semiconductor industry technology roadmap, which evolved into the international semiconductor industry technology roadmap, known as the model of the industrial-level technology roadmap [1] . Since then, Canada, Australia, Japan, Taiwan (China), and other countries and regions have gradually begun to develop the technical roadmap for the industrial sector [2] . The formulation of the industrial technology roadmap helps to guide innovation in key technical fields of the industry, explores the technological evolution track of specific industries, and promotes collaborative innovation and knowledge sharing between industry, academia and research, and thus has become one of the focuses of scholars at home and abroad [3] .

In recent years, scholars have obtained rich research results in the exploration of the technical roadmap development process, especially combining the method design of the technology roadmap with the theory of knowledge management. The framework of the technology roadmap is a storage structure of explicit knowledge, and the technology roadmap development process is the process of creating knowledge from the contacts and interactions of experts from different fields, and more about tacit knowledge [4] . The SECI model proposed by Nonaka provides a new theoretical perspective for the research of the technology roadmap development process, and believes that knowledge creation takes place in a series of knowledge interaction activities, creating new ones through the mutual transformation between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge [5] . Knowledge and the transformation process of tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge are grouped into four different models. The existing research mainly combines the SECI model to conceptually discuss the process of formulating the technical roadmap, and proposes that the technology roadmapping can promote new knowledge which is created by knowledge conversion, such as socialization, externalization, combination and internalization [6] , but there is no practical activity analysis technology roadmap developed in conjunction with the specific roadmap.

Based on the SECI model, this paper identifies the blind spots in the interactive mechanism of knowledge interaction activities in the process of industrial level technology roadmap development through the multi-case study of the industrial technology roadmap project in Guangdong Province, specifies the key knowledge interaction activities in the technology roadmapping, and explains how these activities create knowledge by knowledge conversion.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Technology Road-Mapping from the Perspective of Knowledge Creation

A technology roadmap is a technology planning and management approach that originated in enterprise practice. It uses a time-based structured (usually graphical) framework to develop, express, and communicate strategic plans, exploring technical resources, organizational goals, and environmental evolution dynamic connection [7] . Harvard professor Berlanscom defines the technology roadmap as “a consensus on the future of technology based on scientific knowledge and insights”, and technology itself is a special type of knowledge, so knowledge is one of the technical roadmaps basic aspects [8] .

The technical roadmap has two specific meanings, one is the framework structure of the roadmap, and the other is the process of formulating the roadmap [9] . The framework of the technology roadmap is a storage architecture of explicit knowledge, usually composed of two dimensions of time and multi-level planning space [10] . The time dimension contains the “know-when” knowledge perspective, which includes “know-why” (top level), “know-what” (middle layer), “know-how” (bottom) knowledge perspective, and the technology roadmap [11] . The “know-who” and “know-where” knowledge perspectives in the content. The roadmap development process is a collection of activities and steps needed to build roadmap results, consensus, and future maintenance and updates [12] . Roadmap development requires information sharing and exchange of views from experts in different fields. This is a process of repeated communication to reach a consensus. But it is not enough to simply consider the roadmap development as a communication process, because the main purpose of the roadmap development is to develop explicit knowledge in the form of a roadmap based on the defined framework structure, and to promote new interactions between participants. And the tacit knowledge of understanding, this is a process of knowledge creation.

Therefore, from the perspective of knowledge creation, all kinds of available literature materials are explicit knowledge resources. The views and understandings hidden in the participants’ minds are tacit knowledge resources. The technology roadmap development process provides participants with various means. A good interactive platform that combines different forms of knowledge resources to promote new knowledge.

2.2. Knowledge Interaction Activities and Interaction Mechanisms in the Industrial Technology Road-Mapping

At present, the academic community generally divides the process of developing the technology roadmap into three phases, including pre-preparation, roadmap development, and action after the roadmap is developed [13] . On the basis of the analysis of the industrial technology roadmap development process in Guangdong Province, Chinese scholars summarize and refine the main stages of the industrial technology roadmap development process, which consists of three phases: planning phase, development phase, implementation and renewal phase. This paper regards the industrial technology roadmap development process as a collection of a series of knowledge interaction activities, each of which contains different knowledge interaction activities according to different functions and purposes.

In the field of knowledge management, the SECI model proposed by Nonaka shows that the process of knowledge creation is actually the process of knowledge transformation, that is the mutual transformation between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge, including socialization, externalization, Combine and internalize four different knowledge transformation models [14] , as shown in Figure 1. Organizations create knowledge through the interaction of explicit knowledge and invisible knowledge. We call the interaction between the two types of knowledge “knowledge conversion.” Through the process of knowledge conversion, explicit knowledge and invisible knowledge have been expanded in both quality and quantity. Knowledge conversion has four modes: socialization,

Figure 1. SECI model.

externalization, combination and internalization. Socialization refers to the process of transforming into new invisible knowledge based on common practical experience. Because invisible knowledge is difficult to formally express and needs to consider specific situations, invisible knowledge can only be obtained through experience sharing, such as spending time in the same environment. Externalization is the process of clearly expressing invisible knowledge as explicit knowledge. When invisible knowledge is expressed as explicit knowledge, others can share it and contribute to laying the foundation for new knowledge. The creation of product concepts in new product development is an example of internalization. The success of transforming invisible knowledge into explicit knowledge depends on the continuous use of metaphor, analogy, and simulation. Consolidation is the process of transforming explicit knowledge into more complex and systematic explicit knowledge. Explicit knowledge collected from within and outside the organization is combined, edited, and processed to form new knowledge. This new explicit knowledge can be distributed to the organization’s group. The creative use of computer communication networks and large-scale databases helps to promote integration. Internalization is the process of transforming explicit knowledge into invisible knowledge. Internalization is a process in which the entire organization shares the explicit knowledge created, and then each individual converts explicit knowledge into invisible knowledge. Knowledge is transformed into a part of personal invisible knowledge, usually in the form of thinking patterns or technical process knowledge, which becomes a valuable asset. With the continuous accumulation of tacit knowledge at the individual level, individuals interact with other people through socialization, which will trigger a new round of knowledge creation.

According to the SECI model, scholars believe that the development of the technology roadmap can promote socialization, externalization, composition, and internalization [15] . During the development of the technology roadmap, participants are constantly gaining new tacit knowledge in communication and collaboration. This is a socialization process. When expressing opinions, participants use personal language, words, etc. to personally think and experience. Understanding the explicitization, this is the externalization process; then it is necessary to integrate the opinions of experts from different fields to form a roadmap results report, which is a combination process; during the implementation of the roadmap, participants get a new hidden from the practice of the implementation process. Sexual knowledge, this is the internalization process [16] . Therefore, this paper locates the research object at the industrial level technology roadmap, and combines the SECI model to explore the knowledge interaction activities specifically involved in the three stages of industrial technology roadmap development, and explores the internal interaction mechanism of various knowledge interaction activities.

3. Research Methods

3.1. Method Selection

This paper selects the methods of multiple case studies to carry out research, the specific reasons are as follows. First, this paper focuses on how the knowledge interaction activities in the process of formulating industrial technology roadmaps create new knowledge. It has typical exploratory characteristics. The case study method can better summarize the phenomenon characteristics and the laws behind the phenomenon. Therefore, the theoretical logic is sought. Secondly, the existing literature has not yet combined the specific roadmap to formulate practical activities to illustrate how the industrial technology roadmap development process creates new knowledge. This paper will try to explore the actual industrial technology route pattern examples. Theoretical propositions for further research; third, the conclusions derived from multiple cases tend to be more convincing, and the entire study is considered to be more able to withstand scrutiny. Therefore, this paper adopts a multi-case research method and expects to analyze its internal interaction mechanism by examining the knowledge interaction activities in the specific industrial technology roadmap development process.

3.2. Data Collection

This paper selects 15 industrial technology roadmap project cases of Guangdong Province as the research object, the main reasons are as follows. First, Guangdong Province is the earliest province-level region in China to formulate industrial technology roadmaps. On the basis of practice, the Guangdong Province industrial technology roadmap has formed a relatively systematic roadmap formulation work method and process for many provinces, cities and even the military. According to the reference, the case of selecting the industrial technology roadmap project of Guangdong Province is representative of the research object. Secondly, the report document published by the Guangdong Industrial Technology Roadmap Project records the work flow of the industrial technology roadmap and the detailed work flow. The information of the activity can provide rich textual materials for this article. Thirdly, from 2007 to now, Guangdong Province has successively carried out the development of technical roadmaps for many different industries, which provides suitable research objects for the research of this paper. Cases of technology roadmap projects belonging to different industries are selected for research, and conclusions are drawn from different cases and mutually confirmed to improve the certainty of the research conclusions.

To define the focus and scope of data collection, we constructed a conceptual architecture to show key factors, concepts or variables, and the assumed relationships between them, as shown in Figure 1. We regard the industrial technology roadmap development process as a series of knowledge interaction activities, from the three major stages of the planning phase, development phase, implementation and update phase to examine the knowledge interaction activities involved, and for each knowledge Interactive activities should explore their activity input, activity output, and interaction mechanism between activity input and activity output analysis knowledge interaction activities.

According to the key concepts shown in Figure 2 and the logical relationship between them, the Guangdong Province Industrial Technology Roadmap report document is used as the data source, and relevant data are extracted according to the three conceptual categories of industrial technology roadmap development process, activity input and activity output. For the industrial technology roadmap development process, the main focus is on the knowledge interaction activities included in the roadmap development process and the stage in which they are involved; the input, focus on the implementation of the knowledge interaction activities, the premise and conditions for the activity input; The results obtained. A case report is generated after the data collection for each case is completed to further compile and collate the collected data. To ensure the reliability and reliability of data collection, each case is assigned a researcher responsible for the main data collection work. After preliminary data collection, another researcher will be assigned to the case based on the original data. The data in the report is verified. The verified case report will be circulated among the research team members, and finally the final case report will be determined through a

Figure 2. Conceptual architecture diagram for this study.

team meeting discussion.

3.3. Data Analysis

The data analysis process is the first case study, and draws theoretical propositions related to the industrial technology roadmap development process, knowledge interaction activities and interaction mechanisms, and then conducts cross-case comparative analysis to synthesize the results of a series of cases. The theoretical framework of the construction is verified and expanded. In the case study, we first create a work breakdown structure (WBS) for the roadmap project based on the process, in order to identify which knowledge interaction activities are included in each stage of the industrial technology roadmap development process, and collect the collected data according to different knowledge interaction activities. The data is then analyzed using a coding approach to qualitative knowledge analysis.

The coding is based on the conceptual architecture shown in Figure 1 and is encoded by two different levels of analysis, description and inference. The specific steps are as follows: In the first step, the first level of code is established to mark the text data under the two conceptual categories of activity input and activity output, and the data is defined, and the activity input and the activity output are defined as tacit knowledge according to the knowledge attribute. Or explicit knowledge; the second step is to re-read the text data on the basis of the completion of the first level coding, combine the activity input and the data under the two concept categories of the activity output to analyze and establish the second level code. The data is marked, and the interaction mechanism of the knowledge interaction activities is inferred from the activity input and the activity output, including: socialization, externalization, combination, internalization.

4. Research Findings

The organization and management of the industrial technology roadmap project in Guangdong Province has been perfected in the planning and development phases, but the implementation and update phases are weak. The roadmap report document also lacks records for the implementation and update phases, so this article In the case study, only the planning phase and the development phase are concerned. Find out what knowledge interaction activities are included in the industry technology roadmap development process by reading the relevant sections of the roadmap report document on the technology roadmap development methodology and process. Among them, the roadmap report documents of 15 cases recorded data on industry boundary and scope definition, questionnaire survey, market demand seminar, industry target seminar, technical barrier seminar, research and development needs seminar, etc. Some cases recorded Collecting intelligence information, developing work plans, visiting research, drawing technical roadmaps and other activities, a few cases record data on activities such as learning technology roadmap methods and technical route pattern analysis. Next, we will analyze the various knowledge interaction activities in the planning and development phases with specific case data.

4.1. Input and Output of Knowledge Interaction Activities

For each knowledge interaction activity in the planning phase and the development phase, we first code the data under the activity input and activity output concept categories to define the knowledge attributes of the activity input and output. In the planning stage, the industry boundary and scope definition, the collection of intelligence information, the formulation of work plans, and the questionnaire survey activities, the main input is the scattered information such as industrial intelligence, data information, documents and documents, and finally the industrial chain map and industry are formed. More systematic and structured data such as data databases and research reports. In the learning technology roadmap method and the technical route pattern analysis activity, the documents are about the technical roadmap development method and the domestic and international industrial technology route pattern examples. The final output is the work team personnel’s roadmap development process. Understanding and understanding. Visiting research is a process of interactive interaction between core experts and enterprise personnel. In this process, the thinking and feelings of the enterprise personnel are invested, and the output is the new understanding and understanding formed in the core experts’ minds.

In the development stage, four theme seminars on market demand, industry goals, technical barriers and R&D needs, the participating experts focused on the market demand factors, industrial target factors, technical barrier elements and R&D demand elements that were initially formulated by the previous research. Full discussion and communication. In the course of these activities, what is invested is the experience, understanding and understanding hidden in the minds of experts. The final result is the opinions expressed by various experts. In the roadmap for mapping, what is required is the information content of market demand, industry goals, technical barriers and R&D needs obtained through various thematic seminars. The final output is a more systematic and complex technology roadmap documentation.

4.2. Interaction Mechanism of Knowledge Interaction Activities

On the basis of completing the first level coding analysis, the activity input and the activity output data are combined to carry out the second level coding analysis, and the interaction mechanism of the knowledge interaction activity is derived according to the activity input and the knowledge output of the activity output. In the planning stage, industrial boundary and scope definition, information gathering, work plan development, and questionnaire survey are all processes of integrating explicit knowledge resources such as scattered information and information to form a systematic and structured knowledge system. Chemical. The learning technology roadmap method and the technical route pattern example analysis are that the work team personnel internalize and absorb the explicit knowledge of the data form through reading analysis, thereby enriching their own tacit knowledge, which is internalized. Questionnaire survey is to combine the explicit knowledge of data and information collected by different questionnaires to form an industrial data database, which is a combination. Visiting research is to form a shared experience through on-site communication, thus sharing tacit knowledge such as emotions, feelings and thoughts. This is socialization.

In the development phase, the core work of the four thematic seminars on market demand, industry goals, technical barriers and R&D needs is to discuss the preliminary formulation of market demand elements, industry target elements, technical barrier elements and R&D demand elements. The idea of modifying or refining the various elements at the seminar is the process by which the experts express their ideas as obvious concepts, namely externalization. The technical roadmap is based on summarizing the results of the workshop and the collected data, using simple graphics, tables and text to describe the time between the market needs, industry goals, technical barriers and R&D requirements. The logical relationship combines the explicit knowledge scattered among the market demand, industrial goals, technical barriers and R&D needs into a knowledge system in the form of a road map, which is a combination.

5. Conclusions

Based on the SECI model, this paper conducts multiple case studies with 15 industrial technology roadmap projects in Guangdong Province, and finds that the knowledge interaction activities in the process of industrial technology roadmap development are not only through socialization, externalization, and combination. The internalization of four knowledge transfer models creates new knowledge and involves the dissemination of explicit knowledge in the form of roadmap results to industrial community networks.

Although the existing research suggests that the process of developing the technology roadmap is the process of SECI knowledge creation, it does not analyze how socialization, externalization, composition and internalization are carried out in combination with specific knowledge interaction activities. Through the case study of the industrial technology roadmap project in Guangdong Province, this paper explores the interactive mechanism of knowledge interaction activities in the process of industrial technology roadmap development, which creates new knowledge through socialization, externalization, combination and internalization, and spreads explicit knowledge to industry. The media disseminated explicit knowledge to the industrial community network. This research has certain practical significance. According to the interactive mechanism of knowledge interaction activities, information technology tools can be considered to better support the roadmap formulation work. For example, the interview research is mainly the socialization process of personal tacit knowledge sharing and transmission. The most crucial thing in this process is that people need to form a shared experience to obtain new tacit knowledge, so they can use remote video conferencing system and multimedia video presentation. Tools that contribute to image presentation promote socialization; a series of theme seminars are mainly the process of people’s opinions and opinions. Individuals turn tacit knowledge into obvious concepts, so you can use electronic whiteboard to record the discussion process and results. Case investigation, collection of intelligence information, drawing of technical roadmaps, etc. are mainly to integrate various types of knowledge into a whole process of integration, which can be completed by using SPSS statistical analysis, access data management system and other tools; the basic theory of learning is mainly individuals. Digest and absorb the internalization process of explicit knowledge, so you can use the cloud library to obtain rich knowledge resources for people to learn.

The research in this paper also has some shortcomings. The first is that the case data of this paper is limited to the industrial technology roadmap in Guangdong Province. It is not comprehensive enough to cover the industrial technology roadmap practice activities in other regions of China. The future needs to be supplemented; the second is the conditional limitation. The data source of this paper is relatively single, mainly from the publicly released industrial technology roadmap report. In the follow-up study, if conditions permit, it can be formulated through interviews and participation in the roadmap in order to expand the data source.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Lin, X. (2019) Research on the Industrial Technology Road-Mapping Based on the SECI Model. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 52-62. doi: 10.4236/jss.2019.74005.

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