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Exploration and Reflection on School-Enterprise Cooperation in Higher Vocational Colleges under the Background of Industry-Education Integration

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DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.71006    92 Downloads   163 Views  
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ABSTRACT

Higher vocational education is an important part of Vocational Education in China, and deepening school-enterprise cooperation is an important way and method to improve the quality of Higher Vocational education. We must give full play to the role of relevant government departments in promoting the cooperation between Higher Vocational Colleges and enterprises, and do a good job in the top-level design of the cooperation between Higher Vocational Colleges and enterprises. Higher vocational colleges should establish the sense of reform and brand, adopt a variety of school-enterprise cooperation modes according to local conditions, constantly improve the technical service ability of schools, and promote the connotative development of Higher Vocational colleges. Through establishing the guarantee mechanism of school-enterprise cooperation and improving the quality of personnel training, we can constantly improve the long-term operation mechanism of school-enterprise cooperation, constantly improve the quality of education in Higher Vocational colleges, and realize mutual benefit and win-win in the true sense of both sides.

1. Introduction

Establishing effective cooperation mechanism between colleges and enterprises and carrying out deep cooperation between schools and enterprises are not only the success of Vocational Education in developed countries, but also a good prescription to solve the drawbacks of higher vocational education in China. In the past three years, school-enterprise cooperation has become the focus of our vocational education policy. In 2016, the Central Leading Group for Deepening Reform requested that relevant documents on school-enterprise cooperation promotion policies be issued as soon as possible; in 2017, “deepening the integration of industry and education, school-enterprise cooperation” was written into the report of the Ninth National Congress of the CPC, followed by “Several Opinions on Deepening the Integration of Industry and Education” issued by the General Office of the State Council; and in 2018, the Ministry of Education and other six departments jointly issued “Measures for Promoting School-enterprise”. Every time the system design of school-enterprise cooperation makes the idea of school-enterprise cooperation deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, promotes the continuous innovation of school-enterprise cooperation mode, and realizes the school-enterprise cooperation. “The mode of school-enterprise cooperation is the inevitable trend of the development of Vocational education, the inevitable requirement of social development, and the inherent need of the reform and development of Vocational colleges” [1] .

2. Giving Full Play to the Role of Relevant Government Departments in Promoting the Cooperation between Colleges and Enterprises in Higher Vocational Colleges

Although the current higher vocational education has made tremendous achievements, it has trained a large number of vocational skilled talents for the economic and social development of our country. However, vocational education is also generally regarded as “second-rate education”. Undergraduate university is still an ideal life plan recognized by the society. The concepts of “difficult recruitment of Vocational education, high popularity” and “learning while excelling is official” seriously restrict the development of school-enterprise cooperation in Higher Vocational education. In the guidance, promotion, support, standardization and supervision of the development of Vocational education, there are still many deficiencies in the relevant government, but in the form of support for the cooperation between colleges and enterprises in Higher Vocational colleges, there is no substantive support in human, material, financial and policy aspects. Many higher vocational colleges’ school-enterprise cooperation is maintained by the private relationship of University leaders. Because of the lack of government policy guarantees, many school-enterprise cooperation projects are not sustainable. “There are many local governments in Vocational Colleges in school-enterprise cooperation only as a “visitor” role, cannot play any role in promoting, or even hinder the development of school-enterprise cooperation” [2] .

Practical experience has proved that school-enterprise cooperation plays an important role in promoting the development of local economy and improving the level of Vocational education. Therefore, the relevant departments of local government should actively change their concepts, actively create favorable conditions for school-enterprise cooperation or formulate corresponding policies to effectively support school-enterprise cooperation. In this context, the “Measures for Promoting School-Enterprise Cooperation in Vocational Colleges” issued by the Ministry of Education and other six departments clearly states that “relevant departments of the State Council and local people’s governments at all levels should establish and improve policies, service platforms and guarantee mechanisms for school-enterprise cooperation; the educational administrative departments of local people’s governments at or above the county level shall be responsible for overall coordination of school-enterprise cooperation in their respective administrative areas; Planning guidance, comprehensive management and service guarantee; the division of duties and responsibilities determined by the local people’s government to do a good job in local school-enterprise cooperation” [3] . Therefore, government departments at all levels must attach great importance to school-enterprise cooperation activities in Local Higher Vocational colleges, give full play to the function of the government’s baton, and gradually become the promoter, coordinator and supervisor of school-enterprise cooperation in Higher Vocational colleges.

Local government departments should play their roles well in the following aspects: Firstly, local government departments should use government credibility and news media to continuously publicize the advantages, functions and social needs of Higher Vocational education, guide the public to change traditional education concepts, establish public confidence in Higher Vocational Education industry, and further build higher vocational colleges and enterprises. Secondly, the current higher vocational education is still at the bottom of all kinds of education, which needs the strong support of the government. The relevant departments of local government should increase investment in Higher Vocational Colleges from the aspects of funds, land and teachers’ treatment, so as to improve the basic conditions of cooperation between Higher Vocational Colleges and enterprises. Thirdly, the relevant departments of government must formulate a complete mode of cooperation between Higher Vocational Colleges and enterprises. The system of laws and regulations reduces the worries of both sides of school-enterprise cooperation; Fourthly, relevant government departments should actively build a public service platform between enterprises and colleges to help both sides communicate and coordinate effectively; Fifthly, innovate incentive mechanism, issue industry-university-research cooperation projects according to the current situation and development trend of local industries, guide universities and enterprises to jointly declare, and to higher vocational education. Colleges and universities provide special support policies to enhance the motive force of University-Enterprise Cooperation in Higher Vocational colleges.

3. Promoting the Connotative Development of Higher Vocational Colleges and Enhancing the Effect of School-Enterprise Cooperation

China’s higher vocational education has made great achievements after decades of development, but there are still many problems. Lack of reform consciousness, backward school-running mode, lack of vocational education characteristics, teaching content and industry enterprises cannot be in line, teaching ideas and methods are seriously out of line with social needs, these problems seriously restrict the sound operation and development of Higher Vocational colleges, but also restrict the sustainable development of Higher Vocational Education in China. The key to the success of school-enterprise cooperation is whether enterprises can get further development from school-enterprise cooperation. Therefore, we must take the road of professional development and promote the connotative development of Higher Vocational colleges, in order to fundamentally enhance the attraction of school-enterprise cooperation in Higher Vocational Colleges and give full play to the active role of school-enterprise cooperation in Higher Vocational colleges.

3.1. Higher Vocational Colleges Should Further Establish Reform Consciousness

With the rapid development of higher education, especially the emphasis on the training of applied and skilled talents in undergraduate education, higher vocational education has faced unprecedented challenges, even to the situation of “death without reform and innovation”. Therefore, higher vocational colleges should not only confine school-enterprise cooperation to meetings, signing agreements and propaganda, but also carry out all-round reforms from the aspects of personnel training mode reform, double-qualified teachers, teaching and industry-enterprise integration. Only by constantly reforming and innovating school-enterprise cooperation in higher vocational colleges can it meet the needs of the constantly developing society.

School-enterprise cooperation and integration of production and education are the lifelines of Vocational education. Higher vocational colleges must constantly establish reform consciousness, deepen school-enterprise cooperation, and enhance the space and field of school-enterprise cooperation, so as to ensure the quality of personnel training and the unshakable position of Higher Vocational Education in the whole educational system.

3.2. Higher Vocational Colleges Should Further Establish Brand Awareness

According to the author’s observation, at present some higher vocational colleges still run higher vocational education according to the traditional mode, students have no special skills, colleges have no characteristics, so it can only be done in the end. Therefore, higher vocational colleges must explore a way of school-enterprise cooperation suitable for the development of our school, combining local reality, local resources and local characteristics, gradually build a cost brand, with a distinct brand, in order to raise the banner of vocational education and compete with the general high. In the process of brand building, some enterprises will inevitably encounter indifference. We must adhere to the initiative principle of colleges and universities, actively contact enterprises, actively visit the door, and actively publicize and guide enterprises when their sense of cooperation with colleges and universities is weak.

3.3. Higher Vocational Colleges Should Adopt a Variety of School-Enterprise Cooperation Modes according to Local Conditions

Because the degree of industrial development, industrial structure, enterprise growth stage and so on are different, and the professional settings, teachers, school-running experience, training experimental equipment of higher vocational colleges are also different, so the mode of school-enterprise cooperation cannot be unified, but also unrealistic. According to the principle of adapting measures to local conditions and according to the development status of enterprises, industries and the development status of colleges and universities, we can carry out a variety of school-enterprise cooperation modes, such as “order-based training”, “half-work and half-study”, “dual system”, “cooperative education”, “school-enterprise interaction”, “enterprise cup professional skills competition” and “entrepreneurs’ report meeting”.

3.4. Higher Vocational Colleges Should Strengthen the Training of Teachers and Enhance the Technical Service Ability of Higher Vocational Colleges

“Teachers are leaders of students and imparters of knowledge. In the context of school-enterprise cooperation, teachers also act as a bridge between colleges and enterprises. In order to improve the quality of Higher Vocational Education under the background of school-enterprise cooperation, we must start with teachers and build an excellent team of teachers” [4] . Although in recent years, the construction of teachers in higher vocational colleges has made some achievements, but due to various factors such as treatment, prestige, development prospects and so on, there is still a lack of a large number of excellent teachers in Higher Vocational colleges. On the one hand, most teachers still adhere to the traditional teaching concepts and methods, attach importance to theory rather than practice, and lack initiative in school-enterprise cooperation; on the other hand, many teachers graduate from colleges and universities, lack practical experience, do not have the technical service capabilities required by practice, and are difficult to meet the requirements of school-enterprise cooperation for teachers, which seriously restricts the school-enterprise cooperation in Higher Vocational colleges. Development of cooperation. Promoting the technical service ability of higher vocational colleges is the key factor of school-enterprise cooperation. Therefore, we must take many ways to train teachers, such as “short-term training of Vocational colleges”, “teachers’ posting in enterprises”, “long-term education of academic qualifications”, “exchanges between colleges”, and so on, in order to improve the technical service ability of teachers.

4. Improving the Long-Term Operation Mechanism of School-Enterprise Cooperation and Enhancing the Internal Driving Force for Enterprises to Participate in School-Enterprise Cooperation

At present, in the practice of school-enterprise cooperation in some higher vocational colleges, some enterprises often face the problem that they are unwilling to cooperate with school-enterprise or that the cooperation between school and enterprise is interrupted just at the beginning. Why are some enterprises unwilling to cooperate with higher vocational colleges? The author summarizes the following points: first, the quality of higher vocational students is low, and it is difficult to adapt to the needs of enterprise development; second, enterprises make too little profit in school-enterprise cooperation projects, or cannot bring obvious profits; third, lack of legal protection, enterprises’ participation in vocational education compulsory in the form; fourth, enterprises’ awareness of social responsibility is insufficient. Because of these factors, the enterprises’ lack of motivation and enthusiasm to participate in the cooperation between colleges and enterprises in Higher Vocational Colleges greatly restrict the cooperation between colleges and enterprises in Higher Vocational colleges, and seriously affect the quality of personnel training in Higher Vocational colleges. Therefore, we must further improve the long-term operation mechanism of school-enterprise cooperation, in order to enhance the internal driving force of enterprises to participate in school-enterprise cooperation.

4.1. Improving the Legal Guarantee Mechanism of Enterprises’ Participation in School-Enterprise Cooperation

“School-enterprise cooperation is not one party’s charity, help and support to the other party, but the responsibility and obligation of both sides to perform together. Therefore, both institutions and enterprises must be bound by law, system and morality” [5] . The purpose of colleges and universities is to cultivate talents, but ultimately they are used by enterprises. At this level, enterprises are the beneficiaries of education, so enterprises should also fulfill certain obligations. From the international experience, Germany, Japan, France and other countries have clearly defined the obligation of enterprises to participate in Vocational Education in the form of law. Therefore, China can also draw on these experiences to clarify the responsibility, obligation and penalty measures for enterprises to participate in school-enterprise cooperation. Through the legal safeguard mechanism, the binding force of enterprises to participate in school-enterprise cooperation can be formed and enterprises to participate in higher vocational colleges can be promoted.

4.2. Improving the Quality of Talents Training in Higher Vocational Colleges and Enhancing the Attraction of Enterprises to Participate in School-Enterprise Cooperation

When implementing school-enterprise cooperation in Higher Vocational colleges, we must put the starting point of cooperation on the reform of personnel training according to the needs of cooperative enterprises. Because the skill-type requirements of higher vocational students are not very high, we must strengthen moral education, especially professional ethics education, to enhance the core competitiveness of students with professional ethics education as a grasp. In the process of school-enterprise cooperation, let enterprises realize that the personnel trained by higher vocational colleges can be used and retained, so as to enhance the attraction of enterprises and promote the sustainable development of school-enterprise cooperation.

4.3. Ensuring Win-Win Situation between Schools and Enterprises and Ensuring the Sustainability of School-Enterprise Cooperation

How to stimulate the enthusiasm of enterprises to participate in school-enterprise cooperation because of the poor source of students, low educational background and low overall quality in Higher Vocational colleges? Enterprises must make profits! Therefore, in the process of school-enterprise cooperation in Higher Vocational colleges, we must adhere to the win-win situation between schools and enterprises in order to ensure the sustainability of school-enterprise cooperation. In the process of school-enterprise cooperation, the aim of colleges and universities is to train talents. How to ensure the interests of enterprises? The author believes that there are the following points: firstly, to select excellent students for enterprises, enterprises can get a large number of high-quality human resources; secondly, to appoint teachers to enterprises to enhance the management level of enterprises; thirdly, to provide vocational skills training for enterprise employees, reduce the cost of enterprises; fourthly, to cooperate with enterprises to develop new products and enhance the competitiveness of enterprises in the market.

5. Reflections on Deepening School-Enterprise Cooperation in Higher Vocational Colleges

At present, due to the relatively small social influence of Higher Vocational colleges, school-enterprise cooperation needs constant exploration and innovation. According to the author’s experience in school-enterprise cooperation, as the school-enterprise cooperation, it is more important for the school to be in an active position, to contact the relevant units actively, and not to wait for the units to come to the university, because talent training is the first priority of the university, and the direct purpose of school-enterprise cooperation is only to train talents, which is an important part of completing the talent training plan of the university. Only by actively contacting the institutions can we find more suitable cooperative units, avoid any units to cooperate, and ultimately lead to unsatisfactory results in many aspects of cooperation.

In addition, the depth and breadth of school-enterprise cooperation are hierarchical, not accomplished overnight. We should follow the principle of gradual progress, from shallow to deep. Initial cooperation may be only superficial cooperation, such as mutual visits and visits, but it is also an indispensable step and an important link in communicating feelings and reaching cooperation intentions. After the initial trust between the two sides is established, the second level of school-enterprise cooperation is the signing of cooperation agreements between the two sides. Students go to enterprises for internship. Enterprises recruit graduates in advance and give colleges or students some financial support. Finally, with the deepening of cooperation, enterprises will gradually participate in the revision and formulation of talent training plan of colleges and universities, set up characteristic courses and order training classes according to the needs of enterprises, carry out training and enterprise planning for enterprise employees according to professional experience, go deep into enterprises for teachers, build double-qualified teachers, etc. Shallow cooperation becomes deep cooperation, and ultimately realizes both sides of schools and enterprises.

Finally, due to the existence of a large number of industries, such as professional characteristics, development stages and business operation mode, there is no fixed version of cooperation between colleges and enterprises in Higher Vocational colleges. We should constantly explore and innovate the cooperation mode between colleges and enterprises according to the actual conditions. School-enterprise cooperation requires that colleges and enterprises operate together, support each other, infiltrate each other, intervene in two directions, complement each other’s advantages, use resources and share interests, so as to realize mutual benefit and win-win in the true sense of both sides.

Acknowledgements

School planning, construction and development center of ministry of education Project “Northeast Sichuan Healthy Industry Cooperative Education Experiment Project Based on the Concept of Active Aging” (No. XN0104A); Sichuan University of Arts and Sciences in 2018 “Regional Health Industry Block Chain Applied Research” scientific research and innovation team support.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Zhang, J. (2019) Exploration and Reflection on School-Enterprise Cooperation in Higher Vocational Colleges under the Background of Industry-Education Integration. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 66-74. doi: 10.4236/jss.2019.71006.

References

[1] Wei, H. (2017) Problems and Countermeasures of School-Enterprise Cooperation in Secondary Vocational Schools. Agricultural Machinery of the Times, 9, 207.
[2] Su, J.Z. (2013) A Brief Talk on the Problems and Countermeasures of School-Enterprise Cooperation in Higher Vocational Colleges. Vocational, 6, 31.
[3] The Ministry of Education and Other Six Departments of China (2018) Promotion Measures for School-Enterprise Cooperation in Vocational Colleges and Universities, Teaching Achievement No. 1.
[4] Wu, C. (2014) Deepening School-Enterprise Cooperation to Promote the Improvement of Teaching Quality in Higher Vocational Colleges. Human Resource Development, 12, 133.
[5] Liang, J. and Qi, M.L. (2012) Reasons and Countermeasures for the Low Enthusiasm of Chinese Enterprises to Participate in School-Enterprise Cooperation. Economic Research Guide, 1, 35.

  
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