Share This Article:

Doubling of crop yield through permutation of metabolic pathways

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:4223KB) PP. 364-379
DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.25054    4,132 Downloads   7,777 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Hunger and food insecurity can be minimized by doubling crop yield without increasing cultivated land area and fertilizer applied. Since plant breeding has not genetically doubled photosynthesis per unit leaf area, an approach for doubling crop yield would be through a biotechnology that reprograms metabolic pathways in favor of photosynthesis. The anchor of this biotechnology is glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) including the RNAs it synthesizes. Peanut was treated with stoichiometric combinations of mineral salt solutions to synchronize the GDH subunit polypeptides. Matured seeds were analyzed for fats by HPLC; the RNA biosynthetic activity of GDH, and mRNAs encoding yield-specific enzymes by Northern hybridization. In the PK-treated peanut, the GDH-synthesized RNAs silenced the mRNAs encoding granule-bound starch synthase, phosphoglucomutase (glycolysis), glucosyltransferase (cellulose biosynthesis), and nitrate reductase leaving unaffected the mRNAs encoding acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase (fatty acid biosynthesis), phosphate translocator, and NADH-glutamate synthase resulting to double seed (4342 kg/ha), cellulose (1829 kg/ha), and fat (1381 kg/ha) yields compared with the controls. Down-regulation of phosphate translocator and acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase caused decreased pod yields. GDH-synthesized RNAs that were homologous to yield-specific mRNAs shared extensive plus/plus and plus/minus sequence similarities, and they reprogrammed metabolism by permuting the partially down-regulated, not down-regulated, and down-regulated yield-specific pathways. Control peanut produced 70, NPKS-treated produced 420, NS-treated produced 1680, and PK-treated produced 280 probable rearrangements of the pathways. Therefore, down-regulation of metabolic reactions followed by permutation of yield-related pathways, and redistribution of metabolite load to molecularly connected pathways controls crop yield. Operating as efficient bioreactor, peanut can be maximized to 10000 kg pod/ha, more than enough vegetable oil for nine billion people.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Osuji, G. , Brown, T. , South, S. , Duncan, J. and Johnson, D. (2011) Doubling of crop yield through permutation of metabolic pathways. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 2, 364-379. doi: 10.4236/abb.2011.25054.

References

[1] Fraley, R. (2010) Sustainable solutions for doubling crop productivity by 2030. Plenary Lecture XII, 12th IAPB Congress, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
[2] FAO (2006) The state of food insecurity in the world. Rome.
[3] Brown, L.R. (1997) Facing the challenge of food scarcity: Can we raise grain yields fast enough? In: Plant nutrition for sustainable food production and environment. Ando, T., Fujita, K., Mae, T., Matsumoto, H., Mori, S., and Se- kiya, J. editors. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/ Boston/London. Pages 15-24.
[4] Richards, R.A. (2000) Selectable traits to increase crop photosynthesis and yield of grain crops. J. Exptal. Bot. 51: 447-458.
[5] Carpenter, C. (2011) World food prices climb to record as UN sounds alarm on further shortages. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-03/ accessed 6/10/2011.
[6] Hinchee, M.A.W., Padgette, S.R., Kishore, G.M., De- lannay, X., and Fraley, R.T. (1993) Herbicide-tolerant crops. In: Transgenic plants Vol. 1 Engineering and Utilization. Kung, S., and Wu, R., Editors.Pages 243-263. Academic Press, San Diego, New York, Boston, London, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto.
[7] Gould, F. (1998) Sustainability of transgenic insecticidal cultivars: integrating pest genetics and ecology. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 43: 701-726.
[8] Horton, P. (2000) Prospects for crop improvement through the genetic manipulation of photosynthesis: morphological and biochemical aspects of light capture. J. Exptal. Bot. 51: 475-585.
[9] Century, K., Reuber, T.L., and Ratcliffe, O.J. (2008) Regulating the regulators: The future prospects of transcription factor-based agricultural biotechnology products. Plant Physiology 147: 20-29.
[10] Reynolds, M., Foulkes, M.J., Slafer, G.A., Berry, P., Parry, M.A.J., Snape, J.W., and Angus, W.J. (2009) Raising yield potential in wheat. J. Exptal Bot. 60: 1899-1918.
[11] Xing, Y., and Zhang, Q. (2010) Genetic and molecular bases of rice yield. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 61: 421-442.
[12] Cakmak, I., Engels, C. (1999) Role of mineral nutrients in photosynthesis and yield formation. In: Mineral nutrition of crops. Rengal, Z. Editor. Food Products Press, New York, London, Oxford. Pp 144-168.
[13] McDonald, M.B., and Copeland, L. (1997) Seed production principles and practices. Chapman and Hall, New York.
[14] Cianzio, S.R. (1999) Breeding crops for nutrient efficiency: Soybean and Wheat as case studies. In Mineral nutrition of crops. Rengal, Z. Editor. Food Products Press, New York, London, Oxford. Pages 267-287.
[15] Osuji, G.O., Reyes, J.C., and Mangaroo, A.S. (1998) Glutamate dehydrogenase isomerization: A simple method for diagnosing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium sufficiency in maize (Zea mays L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 2395-2401.
[16] Osuji, G.O., Braithwaite, C., Fordjour, K., Madu, W.C., Beyene, A., Roberts, P.S., and Wright, V. (2003) Purification of glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes and characterization of their substrate specificities. Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol. 33: 13-28.
[17] Osuji, G.O., Konan, J., and M’Mbijjewe, G. (2004) RNA synthetic activity of glutamate dehydrogenase. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 119: 209-228.
[18] Osuji, G.O. and Madu, W.C. (1995) Ammonium iondependent isomerization of glutamate dehydrogenase in relation to glutamate synthesis in maize. Phytochemistry, 39: 495-503.
[19] Osuji, G.O., Braithwaite, C., Pointer, R., Reyes, J.C. (1999) Pesticide inactivation of peanut glutamate dehydrogenase: Biochemical basis of the enzyme’s isomerization. J. Agric Food Chem. 47, 3345-3351.
[20] Osuji, G.O., and Brown, T. (2007) Role of the RNAs synthesized by glutamate dehydrogenase in the coordinate regulation of metabolic processes. The Icfai J. Biotechnol. 1, No. 3: 37-48.
[21] Osuji, G.O., Mangaroo, A.S., Reyes, J., Bulgin, A., and Wright, V. (2003/4) Biomass enhancement in maize and soybean in response to glutamate dehydrogenase isomerization. Biol. Plant. 47: 45-52.
[22] Osuji, G.O., Brown, T.K., and South, S.M. (2010) Optimized fat and cellulosic biomass accumulation in peanut through biotechnology. IJBB 3: 455-476.
[23] Putnam, D.H., Oplinger, E.S., Teynor, T.M., Oelke, E.A., Kelling, K.A., and Doll, J.D. (1991) Peanut. In Alternative field crop manual. mhtml:file://E:\Peanut yield.mht Accessed 8/30/2010.
[24] Walker, M.E., and Ethredge J. (1974) Effects of N rate and application on Spanish peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) yield and seed grade, N and oil. Peanut Sci. 1: 45-47.
[25] Mitchell, C.C., and Adams, J.F. (1994) Phosphorus and Potassium Chapter 5, In Research-based soil testing interpretation and fertilizer recommendations for peanuts on coastal plain soils. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin. http://www.ag.auburn.edu/aaes/communications/380site/contents.htm accessed 10/26/2009
[26] Kaur, P., and Hundal, S.S. (1999) Forecasting growth and yield of groundnut with a dynamic simulation model ‘PNUTGRO’ under Punjab conditions. J. Agric. Sci., Cambridge 133: 167-173.
[27] Jamal, A., Fazli, I.S., Ahmad, S., Kim, K-T, oh, D-G, and Abdin, M.Z. (2006) Effect of sulfur on nitrate reductase and ATP sulfurylase activities in groundnut (Arachis hypogeal L.). J. Plant Biol. 49: 513-517.
[28] Grierson, D., Slater, A., Speirs, J., and Tucker, G.A. (1985) The appearance of polygalacturonasem RNA in tomatoes: one of a series of changes in gene expression during development and ripening. Planta 163: 263-271.
[29] Osuji, G.O., Brown, T.K., and South, S.M. (2008) Dis- covery of the RNA synthetic activity of glutamate dehydrogenase and its application in drug metabolism. The Open Drug Metabolism J. 2: 1-13.
[30] Osuji, G.O., Brown, T.K., and South, S.M. (2009) Nucleotide-dependent reprogramming of mRNAs encoding acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase and lipoxygenase in relation to fat contents of peanut. J. Bot. http://.hindawi.com/journals/jb/2009/278324.html
[31] Cammaerts, D., and Jacobs, M. (1983) A study of the polymorphism and the genetic control of the glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Sci. Lett. 31: 67-73.
[32] Klahre, U., Leuenberger, S.A., Iglesias, V.A., and Meins, F. (2002) High molecular weight RNAs and small interfering RNAs induce systemic posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 10: 1073-1078.
[33] Wright, D.L. (2008) Production of biofuels crops in Florida: Peanut. mhtml://E:\peanut yield 2.mht. Accessed 8/31/2010.
[34] Henning, R.J., Allison, A.H., and Tripp, L.D. (1982) Cultural Practices. In: Peanut Science and Technology. Pattee, H.E. and Young, C.T. eds. Pages 126-137. American Peanut Research and Education Society, Inc Publisher, Yoakum, Texas, USA.
[35] Nasr-Alla, A.E., Osman Fatma, A.A., and Soliman, K.G. (1998) Effects of increased phosphorus and potassium or sulfur application in their different combinations on yield, yield components, and chemical composition of peanut in a newly reclaimed sand soil. Zagazig J. Agric. Res., 25: 557-579.
[36] Kidder, G. (1994) Nitrogen and Sulfur. In Research- based soil testing information and fertilized recommendation for peanuts on coastal plain soils. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin. http://www.auburn.edu/aaes/communications/380site/chapterthree.htm. accessed 10/26/2009.
[37] Jamal, A. (2010) Enzyme activity assessment of peanut under slow-release sulfur fertilization. mhtml: file:// E:\peanut yield 1.mht. Accessed 8/31/2010.
[38] Stitt, M., and Quick, W.P. (1989) Photosynthetic carbon partitioning: Its regulation and possibilities for manipulation. PhysiologiaPlantarum 77: 633-641.
[39] Smith, P.M.C., and Atkins, C.A. (2002) Purine biosynthesis. Big in cell division, even bigger in nitrogen assimilation. Plant Physiol. 128: 793-802.
[40] Edwards, A., Marshall, J., Denyer, K., Sidebottom, C., Visser, R.G.F., Martin, C., and Smith, A.M. (1996). Evidence that a 77-kilodalton protein from the starch of pea embryos is an isoform of starch synthase that is both soluble and granule-bound. Plant Physiol. 112: 89-97.
[41] Streb, S., Elgi, B., Eicke, S., and Zeeman, S. (2009) The debate on the pathway of starch synthesis: A closer look on low-starch mutants lacking plastidial phosphoglucomutase supports the chloroplast-localized pathway. Plant Physiol. 151: 1769-1777.
[42] Hattenbach, A., and Heineke, D. (1999) On the role of chloroplastic phosphoglucomutase in the regulation of starch turn over. Planta 207: 527-532.
[43] Manjunath, S., Lee, C.H.K., VanWinkle, P., and Bailey- Serres, J. (1998) Molecular and biochemical characterization of cytosolic phosphoglucomutase in maize expression during development and in response to oxygen deprivation. Plant Physiol. 117: 997-1006.
[44] Periappuram, C., Steinhauer, L., Barton, D.L., Taylor, D.C., Chatson, B., and Zou, J. (2000) The plastidic phosphoglucomutase from Arabidipsis. A reversible enzyme reaction with an important role in metabolic control. Plant Physiol. 122: 1193-1199.
[45] Harrison, C.J., Mould, R.M., Leech, M.K., Johnson, S.A., Turner, L., Schreck, S.L., Baird, K.M., Jack, P.L., Rawsthorne, S., Hedley, C.L., and Wang, T.L. (2000) The rug3 of pea encodes plastidial phosphoglucomutase. Plant Physiol. 122: 1187-1192.
[46] Keegstra, K., and Raikhel, N. (2001) Plant glycosyltrans- ferases.Curr.Opin. Plant Biol. 4: 219-224.
[47] Saxena, I.M., and Brown, R.M. (1997) Identification of cellulose synthases in higher plants: Sequence analysis of processive β-glycosyltransferases with the common motif ‘D, D, D35Q(R,Q)XRW’’’. Cellulose 4: 33-49.
[48] Roberson, R. (2006) Peanut biodiesel promising but costly alternative fuel. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com accessed 7/23/ 2009
[49] Page, R.A., Okada, S., and Harwood, J.L. (1994) Acetyl- CoA carboxylase exerts a strong flux control over lipid synthesis in plants. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1210: 369- 372.
[50] Reverdatto, S., Beilinson, V., and Nielsen, N.C. (1999) A multisubunit acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase from soybean. Plant Physiol 119: 961-978.
[51] Kleinhofs, A., Warner, R.L., and Melzer, J.M. 1989) Genetics and molecular biology of higher plant nitrate reductase. In Plant Nitrogen Metabolism. Poulton, J.E., Romeo, J.T., and Conn, E.E. Edn. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, USA. Pages 117-155.
[52] Vance, C.P., Miller, S.S., Gregerson, R.G., Samac, D.A., Robinson, D.L., and Gantt, J.S. (1995) Alfalfa NADH- dependent glutamate synthase: structure of the gene and importance in symbiotic N2 fixation. Plant J. 8: 345-358.
[53] Chen, F., and Cullimore, J.V. (1988) Two isoenzymes of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Plant Physiol. 88: 1411-1417.
[54] Schmittgen, T.D., and Zakrajsek, B.A. (2000) Effect of experimental treatment on housekeeping gene expression: validation by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. J. Biochem. Biophys Methods. 46: 69-81.
[55] Sturkie, D.G., and Buchanan, G.A. (1973) Cultural prac- tices. In Peanuts: Culture and uses. APREA, Stillwater, OK. Pp 299-326.
[56] Gobarah, M.E., Mohamed, M.H., and Tawfik, M.M. (2006) Effect of phosphorus fertilizer and foliar spraying with Zinc on growth, yield, and quality of groundnut under reclaimed sandy soil. J. App Sci Res 2: 491-496.
[57] Fageria, N.K., Baligar, V.C., and Jones, C. (1997) Growth and mineral nutrition of field crops. 2ndedition. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 1001 k, pp: 494.
[58] Sorrow, A. (2009) Georgia peanut yield may be record. http://www.southeastfarmpress.com/peanuts/Georgia-peanuts-1013/index.html accessed 8/4/2010.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.