Share This Article:

Deuterium Depletion May Delay the Progression of Prostate Cancer

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:286KB) PP. 548-556
DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.24075    5,001 Downloads   10,427 Views   Citations


Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) is a new promising agent in cancer therapy. The efficiency of the method is based on the discovery, that cancer cells are extremely sensitive to depletion of deuterium (D) and might cause necrosis of the tumour. The purpose of this study was to show the efficacy of D-depletion in prostate cancer (PC) patients. In the double blind, four-month-long, randomized Phase II clinical trial the daily water intake was replaced with DDW in 22 PC patients. Other 22 PC patients took normal water while both groups received the same forms of conventional treatment. In the retrospective study, 91 DDW-treated PC patients were evaluated and median survival time (MST) in the subgroups was calculated. The time course of changes in DDW dose and PSA is presented in two cases. In the prospective trial seven patients in the treated group and one patient in the placebo group achieved partial response (p = 0.046). In the treated group, the net decrease in the prostate volume was three times higher (160.3 cm3 vs. 54.0 cm3; p = 0.0019), urination complaints ceased at a higher rate (8 vs. 0 patients, p = 0.0041), and the one-year survival rate was also higher (2 vs. 9 deaths; p = 0.034). The 91 retrospectively evaluated patients achieved an MST of 11.02 years, despite the fact that 46 of them suffered from distant metastasis. In the two monitored patients, drop of PSA level correlated with the DDW intake. In summary, D-depletion prolonged MST in patients with PC. The method proved to be safe thus its integration in the PC cure as an adjuvant or complementary therapy would be considered.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Kovács, I. Guller, K. Krempels, I. Somlyai, I. Jánosi, Z. Gyöngyi, I. Szabó, I. Ember and G. Somlyai, "Deuterium Depletion May Delay the Progression of Prostate Cancer," Journal of Cancer Therapy, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 548-556. doi: 10.4236/jct.2011.24075.


[1] J. J. Katz and H. L. Crespi, “Isotope Effects in Biological Systems,” In: C. J. Collins and N. S. Bowman, Eds., Isotope Effects in Chemical Reactions, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1971, pp. 286-363.
[2] P. W. Rundel, J. R. Ehleringer and K. A. Nagy, “Stable Isotopes in Ecological Research,” Springer, New York, 1988.
[3] G. Jancso, “Isotope Effects,” In: A. Vertes, S. Nagy and Z. Klencsar, Eds., Handbook of Nuclear Chemistry, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2003, pp. 85-116.
[4] D. M. Czajka, A. J. Finkel, C. S. Fischer and J. J. Katz, “Physiological Effects of Deuterium on Dogs,” American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 201, 1961, pp. 357-362.
[5] J. J. Katz, H. L. Crespi, D. M. Czajka and A. J. Finkel, “Course of Deuteration and Some Physiological Effects of Deuterium in Mice,” American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 203, 1962, pp. 907-913.
[6] G. Somlyai, G. Jancso, G. Jakli, K. Vass, B. Barna, V. Lakics and T. Gaal, “Naturally Occurring Deuterium Is Essential for the Normal Growth Rate of Cells,” FEBS Letters, Vol. 317, No. 1-2, 1993, pp. 1-4. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(93)81479-J
[7] G. Somlyai, G. Laskay, T. Berkenyi, Z. Galbacs, G. Galbacs, S. A. Kiss, G. Jakli and G. Jancso, “Naturally Occurring Deuterium May Have a Central Role in Cell Signalling,” In: J. R. Heys and D. G. Melillo, Eds., Synthesis and Applications of Isotopically Labelled Compounds, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, New York, 1998, pp.137-141.
[8] G. Somlyai, G. Laskay, T. Berkenyi, Z. Galbács, G. Galbacs, S. A. Kiss, G. Jakli and G. Jancso, “The Biological Effects of Deuterium-Depleted Water, a Possible New Tool in Cancer Therapy,” Journal of Oncology, Vol. 30, 1998, pp. 91-94.
[9] Z. Gyongyi and G. Somlyai, “Deuterium Depletion Can Decrease the Expression of C-Myc, Ha-Ras and p53 Gene in Carcinogen-Treated Mice,” In Vivo, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2000, pp. 437-439.
[10] G. Somlyai, M. Molnar, G. Laskay, M. Szabo, T. Berkenyi, I. Guller and A. Kovacs, “Biological Significance of Naturally Occurring Deuterium: The Antitumor Effect of Deuterium Depletion,” Orvosi Hetilap, Vol. 151, No. 36, 2010, pp. 1455-1460. doi:10.1556/OH.2010.28865
[11] M. Malvezzi, A. Arfe, P. Bertuccio, F. Levi, C. La Vecchia and E. Negri, “European Cancer Mortality Predictions for the Year 2011,” Annals of Oncology, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2011, pp. 947-956. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdq774
[12] F. Bray, J. Lortet-Tieulent, J. Ferlay, D. Forman and A. Auvinen, “Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality Trends in 37 European Countries: An Overview,” European Journal of Cancer, Vol. 46, No. 17, 2010, pp. 3040-3052. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2010.09.013
[13] P. Boyle and J. Ferlay, “Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Europe 2004,” Annals of Oncology, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2005, pp. 481-488. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdi098
[14] A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray and M. J. Thun, “Cancer Statistics, 2008,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Vol. 58, No. 2, 2008, pp. 71-96. doi:10.3322/CA.2007.0010
[15] A. B. Barqawi and E. D. Crawford, “The Current Use and Future Trends of Focal Surgical Therapy in the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer,” Cancer Journal, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2007, pp. 313-317. doi:10.1097/PPO.0b013e318156eb99
[16] D. T. Marshall, “Options and Recent Advances in Permanent Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer,” Canadian Journal of Urology, Vol. 14, No. 14, Suppl. 1, 2007, pp. 28-31.
[17] T. J. Eichler, “Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer,” Canadian Journal of Urology, Vol. 14, Suppl. 1, 2007, pp. 19-23.
[18] C. Falandry, M. Bonnefoy, B. You and G. Freyer, “Metastatic Prostate Cancer Treatment in the Elderly,” Bull Cancer, Vol. 94, Suppl. 7, 2007, pp. F89-F96.
[19] W. H. Kruit, G. Stoter and J. G. Klijn, “Effect of Combination Therapy with Aminoglutethimide and Hydrocortisone on Prostate-Specific Antigen Response in Metastatic Prostate Cancer Refractory to Standard Endocrine Therapy,” Anticancer Drugs, Vol. 15, No. 9, 2004, pp. 843-847. doi:10.1097/00001813-200410000-00004
[20] R. Nayvar, N. Sharma and N. P. Gupta, “Docetaxel-Based Chemotherapy with Zoledronic Acid and Prednisone in Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer: Factors Predicting Response and Survival,” International Journal of Urology, Vol. 16, No. 9, 2009, pp. 726-731. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2042.2009.02351.x
[21] A. Fontana, L. Galli, A. Fioravanti, P. Orlandi, C. Galli, L. Landi, S. Bursi, G. Allegrini, E. Fontana, D. R. Marsico, A. Antonuzzo, M. D’Arcangelo, R. Danesi, M. Del Tacca, A. Falcone and G. Bocci, “Clinical and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Metronomic Cyclophosphamide, Celecoxib, and Dexamethasone in Advanced Hormonerefractory Prostate Cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, Vol. 15, No. 15, 2009, pp. 4954-4962. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-3317
[22] O. Smaletz, H. I. Scher, E. J. Small, D. A. Verbel, A. McMillan, K. Regan, W. K. Kelly and M. W. Kattan, “Nomogram for Overall Survival of Patients with progressive Metastatic Prostate Cancer after Castration,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 20, No. 19, 2002, pp. 3972-3982. doi:10.1200/JCO.2002.11.021
[23] H. London, “Separation of Isotopes,” George Newnes Limited, London, 1961.
[24] K. Krempels, I. Somlyai and G. Somlyai, “A Retrospective Evaluation of the Effects of Deuterium Depleted Water Consumption on 4 Patients with Brain Metastases from Lung Cancer,” Integrative Cancer Therapies, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2008, pp. 172-181. doi:10.1177/1534735408322851
[25] F. S. Cong, Y. R. Zhang, H. C. Sheng, Z. H. Ao, S. Y. Zhang and J. Y. Wang. “Deuterium-Depleted Water Inhibits Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Growth by Apoptosis,” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2010, pp. 277-283. doi:10.3892/etm_00000043
[26] I. E. Siniak, V. S. Turusov, A. I. Grigoriev, D. G. Zaridze, V. B. Gaidadymov, E. I. Gus’kova, E. E. Antoshina, T. G. Gor’kova and L. S. Trukhanova, “Consideration of the Deuterium-Free Water Supply to an Expedition to Mars,” Aerospace and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 37, 2003, pp. 60-63.
[27] G. Tusnady, I. Gaudi, L. Rejto, M. Kasler and Z. Szentirmay, “Survival Chances of Hungarian Cancer Patients in the National Cancer Registry,” Magyar onkologia, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2008, pp. 339-349.
[28] G. Torok, M. Csik, A. Pinter, et al., “Effects of Different Deuterium Concentrations of the Media on the Bacterial Growth and Mutagenesis,” Egészségtudomány/Health Science, Vol. 44, 2000, pp. 331-338.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.