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The Functions of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene and Its Derivative Peptides: II Experimental Evidence and Clinical Studies

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DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.23033    4,077 Downloads   8,714 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

In vitro studies suggest Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene (APP) is involved in interaction with the extracellular matrix, neurite growth, adhesion, development, synaptic function, platelet function, and interaction with GTP binding proteins. In vivo experiments show a role in embryonic development, response to cerebral excitotoxicity and gliosis, response to brain injury including ischaemia, hypothalamic function, locomotor function, learning and memory. In vitro observations indicate Aβ has a role in amyloid formation, excitotoxic neuronal injury, tachykinin interaction, endothelial vasoconstrictor response, calcium and oxidative stress, free radical interaction, cell membrane fluidity, apoptosis, astrocyte stimulation, and microglial interaction. Other studies suggest important roles for Aβ oligomers in synaptic function and as an antimicrobial peptide. In vivo investigations show involvement in memory function, the blood brain barrier, and tachykinin response to cerebral injury.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

P. Panegyres and E. Atkins, "The Functions of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene and Its Derivative Peptides: II Experimental Evidence and Clinical Studies," Neuroscience and Medicine, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2011, pp. 239-267. doi: 10.4236/nm.2011.23033.

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