WiFi/WiMAX Seamless Convergence with Adaptive Vertical Handover for Continuity of Internet Access


The next generation of the wireless networks will consist of several overlapping tiers. Provision of undisrupted communication to mobile users is a challenging task. Handover delay is one of the problematic issues that users are faced in the heterogeneous networks. However, in the case of both the WiMAX and the WiFi technologies which are located at the same base station (BS), the vertical handover (VHO) delay will be less as compared with the two conventional WiMAX/WiFi heterogeneous networks with two different wireless Internet service providers (WISP). Nevertheless, protocol conversion is still adding delay and jitter for data exchange between the needed two technologies. In this paper, in order to reduce the delay in the protocol conversion, a new industrial design for WiWi (WiMAX and WiFi) adaptation layer is proposed. The realization of the interworking between these two standards is discussed and evaluated. The results show that the proposed scheme-with the scenario under study- has better performance than other related works.

Share and Cite:

R. Saeed, H. Mohamad, M. Abbas and B. Ali, "WiFi/WiMAX Seamless Convergence with Adaptive Vertical Handover for Continuity of Internet Access," Advances in Internet of Things, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2011, pp. 32-37. doi: 10.4236/ait.2011.12005.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] K. Pahlavan, P. Krishnamurthy, A. Hatami, M. Ylianttila, J. P. Makela, R. Pichna and J. Vallstron, “Handoff in Hybrid Mobile Data Networks,” Mobile and Wireless Communications Summit, Vol. 7, No. 2, April 2007, pp 34-47.
[2] J. Nie, J. C. Wen, Q. Dong, Z. Zhou, “A Seamless Handoff in IEEE 802.16a and IEEE 802.11n Hybrid Networks,” Communications, Circuits and Systems, 2005. Proceedings, 2005 International Conference on, Vol. 1, 27-30 May 2005, pp. 383-387.
[3] F. Behmann, “Impact of Wireless (Wi-Fi, WiMAX) on 3G and Next Generation: An Initial Assessment,” Electro Information Technology, 2005 IEEE International, Lincoln, 12 May 2005, pp. 1-6.
[4] R. Inayat, R. Aibara and K. Nishimura, “A Seamless Handoff for Dual-Interfaced Mobile Devices in Hybrid Wireless Access Networks,” Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AlNA2007), Vol. 1, 2007, pp. 373-378.
[5] O. S. Gaitan, P. Martins, S. Tohme and J. Demerjian, “SIP Embedded Attribute Certificates for Service Mobility in Heterogeneous Multi-Operator Wireless Networks,” Vehicular Technology Conference, (VTC2007), Dublin, 22-25 April 2007, pp. 2000-2004.
[6] G. Lampropoulos, K. Salkintzis and N. Passas, “Media-Independent Handover for Seamless Service Provision in Heterogeneous Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2008, pp. 64-71. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2008.4427232
[7] Y. Zhang, L. T. Yang and J. H. Ma, “Unlicensed Mobile Access Technology: Protocols, Architecture, Security Standards And Applications,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2008. doi:10.1201/9781420055382
[8] C. Tang, “Evolving to Wireless and Wireline Convergence—An Overview of IMS,” Wireless and Optical Communications, 2005 (WOCC2005), 22-23 April 2005, pp. 27-29.
[9] C. N. Ping, S. C. Liew and C. Lin, “Voice over Wireless LAN via IEEE 802.16 Wireless MAN and IEEE 802.11,” 2005 International Conference on Wireless Networks, Communications and Mobile Computing, Hong Kong, 13-16 June 2005, pp. 504-509. doi:10.1109/WIRLES.2005.1549460
[10] P. Djukic and S. Valaee, “802.16 MCF for 802.11a Based Mesh Networks: A Case for Standards Re-Use,” 23rd Biennial Symposium on Communications, Kingston, 29 May-1 June 2006, pp. 186-189.
[11] L.-C. Wang, A. Chen and H.-H. Chen, “Network Selection with Joint Vertical and Horizontal Handoff in Heterogeneous WLAN and Mobile WiMAX Systems”, Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2007), Hsinchu, 22-25 April 2007, pp. 794-798.
[12] D. Niyato and E. Hossain, “Wireless Broadband Access: WiMAX and Beyond—Integration of WiMAX and WiFi: Optimal Pricing for Bandwidth Sharing,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 45, No. 5, May 2007, pp: 140-146. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2007.358861
[13] J. Nie, l. Y. Zeng and J. C. Wen, “A Bandwidth Based Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Handoff in IEEE 802.16 and IEEE 802.11 Hybrid Networks,” 2007 International Conference on Convergence Information Technology, Hyundai, 21-23 November 2007, pp. 24-29.
[14] S. N. Enrique and V. W. S. Wong, “Comparison between Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithms for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks,” 63rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Vol. 2, 2006, pp. 947-951. doi:10.1109/VETECS.2006.1682964
[15] Y. Q. Zhang, W. H. Zhuang and A. Saleh, “Vertical Handoff between 802.11 and 802.16 Wireless Access Networks,” Global Telecommunications Conference, Waterloo, 30 November-4 December 2008, pp. 1-6.
[16] Y.-C. Chen, J.-H. Hsiaa and Y.-J. Liaoa, “Advanced Seamless Vertical Handoff Architecture for Wimax and Wifi Heterogeneous Networks with Qos Guarantees,” Computer Communications, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2009, pp. 281-293. doi:10.1016/j.comcom.2008.10.014
[17] S. Xu and T. Saadawi, “Does the IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol Work Well in Multihop Wireless Ad hoc Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 39, No. 6, June 2001, pp. 130-137. doi:10.1109/35.925681
[18] S. Wieth?lter and C. Hoene, “IEEE 802.11e EDCA Simulation Model for NS-2,” Telecommunication Networks Group, 2007. http://www.tkn.tu-berlin.de/research/802.11e_ns2/
[19] J. F. Borin, N. L. S.Fonseca, “A Standard-Compliant Scheduler for WiMAX Networks,” IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, 30 November-4 December 2008, pp. 1-5.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.