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Anti-Inflammatory and Immunostimulatory Effects of Extract from Culture of Effective Microorganisms (ECEM) Revealed by Functional Genomics and Metabolome Analyses

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DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.612116    2,214 Downloads   2,715 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The extract from culture of effective microorganisms (ECEM) is a secondary metabolite produced in symbiotic culture of a mixture of yeasts and lactic bacteria followed by photosynthetic bacteria. Metabolomics studies have demonstrated that ECEM contained several active ingredients associated with anti-inflammation through interactions with nuclear factor-κB. Functional genomics using DNA microarrays revealed that ECEM had distinctive anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory actions in RAW264.7 cells. ECEM inhibited the LPS-upregulated expression of one group of pro-inflammatory genes (iNos, Il6 and Cox2) but not another group genes (Tnf, Ccl7 and Dusp2); it also upregulated the expression of Cd1d1, which participates in antigen presentation on lipids, resulting in activation of natural killer T (NKT) cells related to infection defense and cancer. Bacterial glycosylated lipid and other related complex lipids in ECEM are thought to trigger this upregulation of Cd1d1 expression. These results suggest that ECEM functions in the immune response in both inflammation and antigen presentation and that it contains components important for these functions. These novel effects of ECEM could be invaluable for developing functional drinks or health beverages.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Shintani, M. , Mitsunaga, F. , Shimabukuro, S. and Nakamura, S. (2015) Anti-Inflammatory and Immunostimulatory Effects of Extract from Culture of Effective Microorganisms (ECEM) Revealed by Functional Genomics and Metabolome Analyses. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 1115-1125. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.612116.

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