Share This Article:

Dynamics and Activity of Iron-Reducing Bacterial Populations in a West African Rice Paddy Soil under Subsurface Drainage: Case Study of Kamboinse in Burkina Faso

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1475KB) PP. 860-869
DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.68083    2,973 Downloads   3,353 Views   Citations


Iron toxicity is one of the main edaphic constraints that hamper rice production in West African savanna and forest lowlands. Although chemical reduction processes of various types of pedogenic iron oxides could not be underestimated, the bulk of these processes can be ascribed to the specific activity of Iron-Reducing Bacteria (IRB). The reducing conditions of waterlogged lowland soils boost iron toxicity through the reduction of almost all iron into ferrous form (Fe2+), which can cause disorder in rice plant and crop yield losses. Aiming to contribute at the improvement of rice yield in Africa, an experiment was developed to evaluate the impact of subsurface drainage on IRB dynamics and activity during rice cultivation. Twelve concrete microplots with a clay-loam soil and a rice variety susceptible to iron toxicity (FKR 19) were used for the experiment. Soil in microplots was drained for 7 days (P1), 14 days (P2), and 21 days (P3), respectively. Control (T) microplots without drainage were prepared similarly. The evolution of IRB populations and the content of ferrous iron in the paddy soil and in soil near rice root were monitored throughout the cultural cycle using MPN and colorimetric methods, respectively. Data obtained were analyzed in relation to drainage frequency, rice growth stage, and rice yield using the Student t test and XLSTAT 7.5.2 statistical software. From the results obtained, the subsurface drainage reduced significantly IRB populations (p = 0.024). However, the drainage did not affect significantly ferrous iron concentration in the soil near rice roots (p = 0.708). The concentration of ferrous iron (p < 0.0001) in soil near rice roots and the number of IRB (p < 0.0001) were significantly higher during the rice tillering and maturity stages. Although no significant difference was observed for rice yield among treatments (p = 0.209), the P2 subsurface drainage showed the highest yield and the lowest concentration of ferrous iron in soil near rice roots.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Otoidobiga, C. , Keita, A. , Yacouba, H. , Traore, A. and Dianou, D. (2015) Dynamics and Activity of Iron-Reducing Bacterial Populations in a West African Rice Paddy Soil under Subsurface Drainage: Case Study of Kamboinse in Burkina Faso. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 860-869. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.68083.


[1] Cherif, M., Audebert, A., Fofana, M. and Zouzou, M. (2009) Evaluation of Iron Toxicity on Lowland Irrigated Rice in West Africa. Tropicultura, 27, 88-92.
[2] Engel, K., Asch, F. and Becker, M. (2012) Classification of Rice Genotypes Based on Their Mechanisms of Adaptation to Iron Toxicity. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 175, 871-881.
[3] Ponnamperuma, F.N. (1972) The Chemistry of Submerged Soils. Advances in Agronomy, 24, 29-96.
[4] Sahrawat, K.L. and Diatta, S. (1995) Nutrient Management and Season Affect Soil Iron Toxicity. Annual Report 1994. West Africa Rice Development Association, Bouake, Ivoiry Coast, 34-35.
[5] WARDA (2002) Annual Report 2001-2002. Activity Highlights, ADRAO/WARDA., Bouake, Ivoiry Coast, 29-37.
[6] Ouattara, A.S. (1992) Contribution to the Study of Iron-Reducing Bacteria and Sulfate in Paddy Soils of the Kou Valley (Burkina Faso). Ph.D Dissertation, Provence University, Aix-Marseille I.
[7] Liesack, W., Shnell, S. and Revsbech, N.P. (2000) Microbiology of Flooded Rice Paddies. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 24, 625-645.
[8] Yi, W., Wang, B. and Qu, D. (2012) Diversity of Isolates Performing Fe(III) Reduction from Paddy Soil Fed by Different Organic Carbon Sources. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11, 4407-4417.
[9] Becker, M. and Folkard, A. (2005) Iron Toxicity in Rice Conditions and Management Concepts. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 168, 558-573.
[10] Mongon, J., Konnerup, D., Colmer, T.D. and Rerkasem, B. (2014) Responses of Rice to Fe2+ in Aerated and Stagnant Conditions: Growth, Root Porosity and Radial Oxygen Loss Barrier. Functional Plant Biology, 41, 922-929.
[11] Shahid, M., Nayak, K.A., Shukla, A.K., Tripathi, R., Kumar, A., Raja, R. Panda, B.B., Meher, J., Bhattacharyya, P. and Dash, D. (2014) Mitigation of Iron Toxicity and Iron, Zinc, and Manganese Nutrition of Wetland Rice Cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) Grown in Iron-Toxic Soil. Clean Soil, Air, Water, 42, 1604-1609.
[12] Paul, K., Diatta, M. and Millar, D. (Editors) (2010) The Effect of Iron Toxicity on the Yield and Yield Components of rice. Proceedings of Africa Rice Congress on Innovation and Partnerships to Realize Africa’s Rice Potential, WARDA, IER, Bamako, 22-26 March 2010, 52-53.
[13] Fageria, N.K., Santos, A.B., Barbosa, F.M.P. and Guimarães, C.M. (2008) Iron Toxicity in Lowland Rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 31, 1676-1697.
[14] Kosaki, T. and Juo, A.S.R. (1986) Iron Toxicity in Inland Valleys: A Case Study from Nigeria. In: Juo, A.S.R. and Lowe, J.A., Eds., Wetlands and Rice in Sub-Saharan Africa Ibadan, IITA, Ibadan, 167-174.
[15] Okusami, T.A. (1986) Properties of Some Hydromorphic Soils in West Africa. In: Juo, E.S.R. and Lowe, J.A., Eds., Wetlands and Rice in Sub-Saharan Africa Ibadan, IITA, Ibadan, 167-179.
[16] Audebert, A. and Sahrawat, K.L. (2000) Mechanism for Iron Toxicity Tolerance in Lowland Rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 23, 1817-1885.
[17] Jacq, V.A., Prade, K. and Ottow, J.G. (1991) Iron Sulphide Accumulation in the Rhizosphere of Wetland Rice (Oriza sativa L.) as the Result of Microbial Activities. In: Fyfe, W.S. Ed., Developments in Geochemistry, Vol. 6, Diversity of Environmental Biogeochemistry, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 453-468.
[18] Audebert, A. (2006) Diagnosis of Risk and Approaches to Iron Toxicity Management in Lowland Rice Farming. In: Audebert, A., Narteh, L.T., Kiepe, P., Millar, D. and Beks, B., Eds., Iron Toxicity in Rice-Based Systems in West Africa, ADRAO, Cotonou, 6-17.
[19] Keïta, A. (2015) Subsurface Drainage of Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Schemes in Tropical Savannah: Case Studies of Tiefora and Moussodougou in Burkina Faso. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, Delft.
[20] INERA (2000) Descriptive Folders of Rice Cultivars. Institute of Environment and Agricultural Research, Ouagadougou.
[21] Sokona, M.E.B., Boro, A., Hema, A. and Katiella, B. (2010) Diagnostic Study of the Rice Irrigation Scheme of Tiefora, Province of Comoe, Region of the Cascades. Field Report, 2iE, Ouagadougou.
[22] Hammann, R. and Ottow, J.C.G. (1974) Reductive Dissolution of Fe2O3 by Saccharolytic Clostridia and Bacillus polymyxa under Anaerobic Conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 137, 108-115.
[23] Prade, K. (1987) Influence of Nutrient Supply to the Iron Poisoning of Paddy (O. Sativa L.) in the Basse Casamance Senegal. PhD Thesis, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart. (In German)
[24] Hugues, B. and Plantat, J.L. (1983) Calculation of the Acceptable Limits of the Most Probable Number When the Number of Inoculum Per Dilution Is Important. Chemosphere, 12, 1679-1684.
[25] Vizier, J.F. (1969) Selection and Development of a Method for Iron Ferrous Dosage in Waterlogged Soils. ORSTOM Books, Pedology Serial, Montpellier.
[26] Conrad, R. (2007) Microbial Ecology of Methanogens and Methanotrophs. Advances in Agronomy, 96, 1-63
[27] Hori, T. Muller, A., Igarashi, Y., Conrad, R. and Friedrich, M.W. (2010) Identification of Iron-Reducing Microorganisms in Anoxic Rice Paddy Soil by 13C-Acetate Probing. The ISME Journal, 4, 267-278.
[28] Bongoua, D.A.J. (2009) Iron-Reducing Bacterial Communities Implications and Environmental Settings in the Functioning and Rice Fields Soils Quality (Thaïlande and Ivoiry Coast). PhD Thesis, Henri Poincare University, Nancy.
[29] Berthelin, J. (1982) Microbial Processes in Hydromorphic Soils in Temperate Regions: Implications of Pedogenesis. Pedology Grand, 32, 313-328.
[30] Bousserrhine, N., Gasser, U.G., Jeanroy, E. and Berthelin, J. (1999) Bacterial and Chemical Reductive Dissolution of Mn-, Co-, Cr-, and Al-Substituted Goethites. Geomicrobiology Journal, 16, 245-258.
[31] Ehrlich, H.L. (2002) Geomicrobiology. 4th Edition, Marcel Dekker Publisher, New York.
[32] Betremieux, R. (1951) Experimental Study of Iron and Manganese in the Soils. Annales Agronomiques, 10, 193-295.
[33] Prade, K., Ottow, J.C.G., Jacq, V.A., Malouf, G. and Loyer, J.Y. (1990) Relationships between the Properties of Flooded Rice Soils and Iron Toxicity in Lower Casamance (Senegal). Studies, Review and Summary of Previous Work. ORSTOM Books, Pedology Serial, IRD, Montpellier, 453-474.
[34] Patrick, J.W.H. and Reddy, C.N. (1978) Chemical Changes in Rice Soils. In: IRRI, Ed., Soils and Rice, The International Rice Research Institute, Manila, 361-379.
[35] Dave, G. (1985) The Influence of pH on the Toxicity of Aluminum, Cadmium, and Iron to Eggs and Larvae of the Zebrafish. Brachydanio Rerio Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 10, 253-267.
[36] Nozoe, T., Agbisit, R., Fukuta, Y., Rodriguez, R. and Yanagihara, S. (2008) Characteristics of Iron Tolerant Rice Lines Developed at IRRI under Field Conditions. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 42, 187-192.
[37] Sahrawat, K.L. (2010) Reducing Iron Toxicity in Lowland Rice with Tolerant Genotypes and Plant Nutrition. Plant Stress, 4, 70-75.
[38] Ando, T. (1983) Nature of Oxidizing Power of Rice Roots. Plant Soil, 72, 57-71.
[39] Tadano, T. (1975) Devices of Rice Roots to Tolerate High Iron Concentration in Growth Media. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 9, 34-39.
[40] Tadano, T. (1976) Studies on the Methods to Prevent Iron Toxicity in Lowland Rice. Hokudai Nougakubu Houbun Kiyou (Mem. Fac. Agric. Hokkaido Univ.), 10, 22-68.
[41] Bienfait, H.F. (1989) Prevention of Stress in Iron Metabolism of Plants. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 38, 105-129.
[42] Sahrawat, K.L. (2004) Iron Toxicity in Wetland Rice and the Role of Other Nutrients. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27, 1471-1504.
[43] Panda, B.B., Sharma, S., Mohapatra, P.K. and Da, A. (2012) Application of Excess Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilizers Leads to Lowering of Grain Iron Content in High-Yielding Tropical Rice. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 43, 2590-2602.
[44] Ottow, J.C.G., Prade, K., Bertenbreiter, W. and Jacq, V.A. (1993) Iron Toxicity Mechanisms of Flooded Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Senegal and Indonesia. In: Raunet, M., Ed., Lowland and Rice-Growing, CIRAD-CA, Montpellier, 231-241.
[45] Ethan, S., Odunze, A.C., Abu, S.T. and Iwuafor, E.N.O. (2011) Effect of Water Management and Nitrogen Rates on Iron Concentration and Yield in Lowland Rice. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 2, 622-629.
[46] Benckiser, G., Ottow, J.C.G., Watanabe, I. and Santiago, S. (1984) The Mechanism of Excessive Iron-Uptake (Iron Toxicity) of Wetland Rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 7, 177-185.
[47] Benckiser, G., Santiago, S., Neue, H.U., Watanabe, I. and Ottow, J.C.G. (1984) Effect of Fertilization on Exudation, Dehydrogenase Activity, Iron-Reducing Populations and Fe (II) Formation in the Rhizosphere of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Relation to Iron Toxicity. Plant Soil, 79, 305-316.
[48] Prade, K., Ottow, J.C.G. and Jacq, V.A. (1988) Excessive Iron Uptake (Iron Toxicity) by Wetland Rice ( tiva L.) on an Acid Sulfate Soil in the Casamance/Senegal. In: Dost, H., Ed., Selected Papers of the Dakar Symposium on Acid Sulphate Soils, I.L.R.I., Wageningen, 150-162.
[49] IRRI (2002) Standard Evaluation System For Rice. International Rice Research Institute, Manila.
[50] Hauck, S., Benz, M., Brune, A. and Schink, B. (2001) Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Denitrifying Bacteria in Profundal Sediments of a Deep Lake (Lake Constance). FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 37, 127-134.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.