Share This Article:

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Youth Experiences Survey for Sport (YES-S)

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:321KB) PP. 421-429
DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2015.55044    3,043 Downloads   3,713 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Research on Positive Youth Development (PYD) has been hampered by lack of a valid measure for the construct, particularly for research in sport. The Youth Experiences Scale for Sport (YES-S) [1], is a five-factor measure of positive youth outcomes specifically designed for the sport context. The YES-S is a promising instrument that fills an important niche in PYD research, and MacDonald et al. provided support for many of its psychometric properties. However, the factor structure of the scale is currently based on an exploratory factor analysis and has not yet been subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The present study was designed to confirm the five-factor structure of the YES-S. A sample of 350 youth sport athletes (196 male, 153 female) completed the YES-S. A CFA showed that a modified version of the five-factor YES-S had excellent fit of the model to the data. An analysis of invariance showed no differences in responses in terms of gender. It is concluded that this short-form YES-S offers excellent psychometric properties while retaining the original factor structure of the YES-S. The results offer further support for the validity of the factor structure of the YES-S while providing a shorter version of the scale, which may be appealing for research with younger sport participants.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Sullivan, P. , LaForge-MacKenzie, K. and Marini, M. (2015) Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Youth Experiences Survey for Sport (YES-S). Open Journal of Statistics, 5, 421-429. doi: 10.4236/ojs.2015.55044.

References

[1] MacDonald, D.J., Côté, J., Eys, M. and Deakin, J. (2012) Psychometric Properties of the Youth Experience Survey with Young Athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 332-340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.09.001
[2] Larson, R.W. (2000) Toward a Psychology of Positive Youth Development. American Psychologist, 55, 170-183.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.170
[3] Lerner, R.M., Almerigi, J.B., Theokas, C. and Lerner, J.V. (2005) Positive Youth Development. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 10-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431604273211
[4] Lerner, R.M. (2005) Promoting Positive Youth Development: Theoretical and Empirical Bases. Workshop on the Science of Adolescent Health and Development, National Research Council/Institute of Medicine, Washington DC, 9 September 2005, 92 p.
[5] Hansen, D.M. and Larson, R. (2005) The Youth Experience Survey 2.0: Instrument Revisions and Validity Testing. Unpublished Manuscript, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
[6] Dworkin, J.B., Larson, R. and Hansen, D. (2003) Adolescents’ Accounts of Growth Experiences in Youth Activities. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 17-26.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021076222321
[7] Fraser-Thomas, J.L., Côté, J. and Deakin, J. (2005) Youth Sport Programs: An Avenue to Foster Positive Youth Development. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 10, 19-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1740898042000334890
[8] Wilkes, S. and Cote, J. (2010) The Developmental Experiences of Adolescent Females in Structured Basketball Programs. Revue phénEPS/PHENex Journal, 2, 1-21.
[9] Hansen, D.M., Larson, R.W. and Dworkin, J.B. (2003) What Adolescents Learn in Organized Youth Activities: A Survey of Self-Reported Developmental Experiences. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13, 25-55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1532-7795.1301006
[10] Larson, R.W., Hansen, D.M. and Moneta, G. (2006) Differing Profiles of Developmental Experiences across Types of Organized Youth Activities. Developmental Psychology, 42, 849-863.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.42.5.849
[11] Gould, D. and Carson, S. (2011) Young Athletes’ Perceptions of the Relationship between Coaching Behaviors and Developmental Experiences. International Journal of Coaching Science, 5, 3-29.
[12] Strachan, L., Cote, J. and Deakin, J. (2009) An Evaluation of Personal and Contextual Factors in Competitive Youth Sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21, 340-355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10413200903018667
[13] Gould, D. and Carson, S. (2008) Life Skills Development through Sport: Current Status and Future Directions. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1, 58-78.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17509840701834573
[14] Tabachnick, B.G. and Fidell, L.S. (2007) Using Multivariate Statistics. 5th Edition, Pearson Allyn and Bacon, Boston.
[15] Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B. and Anderson, R. (2010) Multivariate Data Analysis. 7th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
[16] Satorra, A. and Bentler, P.M. (1994) Corrections to Test Statistics and Standard Errors in Covariance Structure Analysis. In: von Eye, A. and Clogg, C.C., Eds., Latent Variables Analysis: Applications for Developmental Research, Sage, Thousand Oaks, 399-419.
[17] Hu, L. and Bentler, P.M. (1999) Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
[18] Byrne, B.M. (2008) Testing for Multigroup Equivalence of a Measuring Instrument: A Walk through the Process. Psicothema, 20, 872-882.
[19] Browne, M.W. and Cudeck, R. (1993) Alternative Ways of Assessing Model Fit. In: Bolle, K.A. and Long, J.S., Eds., Testing Structural Models, Sage, Newbury Park, 136-162.
[20] Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R. and Tatham, R. (2006) Multivariate Data Analysis. 6th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
[21] Bentler, P.M. (2005) EQS 6 Structural Equations Program Manual. Multivariate Software, Encino.
[22] Cheung, G.W. and Rensvold, R.B. (2002) Evaluating Goodness-of-Fit Indexes for Testing Measurement Invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233-255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5
[23] Little, T.M. (1997) Mean and Covariance Structures (MACS) Analyses of Cross-Cultural Data: Practical and Theoretical Issues. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 32, 53-76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3201_3

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.