Share This Article:

Subjective symptoms related to depression and suicidal risk in a Japanese community: a cross-sectional study

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:164KB) PP. 40-48
DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2011.12007    4,255 Downloads   8,629 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between self-reported somatic and mental symptoms and the presence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal risk among community dwellers in Japan. METHODS: From two locations in Japan, we recruited 734 community dwellers who underwent an annual health screening. Basic symptoms of MDD, dysthymia, and the presence of associated suicidal risk were determined using a brief structured diagnostic psychiatric interview, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Information regarding self-reported somatic and mental symptoms was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire used in the annual health check-up. Suicidal risk was evaluated on the basis of six relevant questions asked in MINI. Logistic regression model was used to calculate age- and gender-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MDD. Further adjustment for basic symptoms of MDD was performed to calculate ORs and CIs for suicidal risk. RESULTS: A myriad of somatic symptoms, including headache, heavy headedness, eye strain, and shoulder stiffness [adjusted OR (95% CI), 11.4 (1.22 - 107) at location 1; 5.17 (1.23 - 21.7) at location 2], were associated with the presence of MDD. Dysmenorrhea [6.07 (1.14 - 32.3) at location 1] and dysesthesia, arthralgia, and swelling in the extremities [2.72 (1.14 - 6.47) at location 2] were significantly associated with an increase in suicidal risk, independent of the presence of basic symptoms of MDD. CONCLUSION: Several somatic symptoms, especially pain-related ones, may serve as possible signs of depression and suicidal risk among community dwellers.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Takemura, S. , Yoshimasu, K. , Fukumoto, J. , Yamamoto, H. and Miyashita, K. (2011) Subjective symptoms related to depression and suicidal risk in a Japanese community: a cross-sectional study. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 1, 40-48. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2011.12007.

References

[1] Sechter, D., Bonin, B., Bertschy, G., Vandel, S. and Bizouard, P. (1991) Prediction of suicide risk. In French, Encephale, 17, 361-364.
[2] Hall, R.C., Platt, D.E. and Hall, R.C. (1999) Suicide risk assessment: A review of risk factors for suicide in 100 patients who made severe suicide attempts. Evaluation of suicide risk in a time of managed care. Psychosomatics, 40, 18-27.
[3] Aihara, H. and Iki, M. (2003) An ecological study of the relations between the recent high suicide rates and economic and demographic factors in Japan. Journal of Epidemiology, 13, 56-61.
[4] Nishi, N., Kurosawa, M., Nohara, M., Oguri, S., Chida, F., Otsuka, K., Sakai, A. and Okayama, A. (2005) Know- ledge of and attitude toward suicide and depression among Japanese in municipalities with high suicide rates. Journal of Epidemiology, 15, 48-55. doi:10.2188/jea.15.48
[5] Fushimi, M., Sugawara, J. and Shimizu, T. (2005) Suicide patterns and characteristics in Akita, Japan. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 59, 296-302. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2005.01374.x
[6] Awata, S., Seki, T., Koizumi, Y., Sato, S., Hozawa, A., Omori, K., Kuriyama, S., Arai, H., Nagatomi, R., Matsuoka, H. and Tsuji, I. (2005) Factors associated with suicidal ideation in an elderly urban Japanese population: A community-based, cross-sectional study. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 59, 327-336. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2005.01378.x
[7] Fujioka, S., Abe, S. and Hiraiwa, K. (2004) Lifetime social, psychological and physical background of suicides-Research on the number of suicides during a year in Fukushima Prefecture. In Japanese, Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, 106, 17-31.
[8] Okuma, H. (2008) Modern Clinical Psychiatry. In Japanese, 11th Edition, Kanahara Press, Tokyo, 448.
[9] Bertolote, J.M., Fleischmann, A., De Leo, D. and Wasserman, D. (2004) Psychiatric diagnoses and suicide: Re-visiting the evidence. Crisis, 25, 147-155. doi:10.1027/0227-5910.25.4.147
[10] Nakao, M., Yamanaka, G. and Kuboki, T. (2001) Major depression and somatic symptoms in a mind/body medicine clinic. Psychopathology, 34, 230-235. doi:10.1159/000049315
[11] Pompili, M., Di Cosimo, D., Innamorati, M., Lester, D., Tatarelli, R. and Martelletti, P. (2009) Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with chronic daily headache and migraine: A selective overview including personality traits and suicide risk. The Journal of Headache and Pain, 10, 283-290. doi:10.1007/s10194-009-0134-2
[12] Miwa, Y., Yajima, N., Shiozawa, F., Yoda, Y., Hanaoka, R., Hanyuda, M., Hosaka, M., Kasama, T., Negishi, M., Ide, H. and Adachi, M. (2002) Relationship between psychological factors and arthralgia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Modern Rheumatology, 12, 32-36. doi:10.1007/s101650200005
[13] Vaccarino, A.L., Sills, T.L., Evans, K.R. and Kalali, A.H. (2009) Multiple pain complaints in patients with major depressive disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 159-162. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181906572
[14] Bense?or, I.M., Tófoli, L.F. and Andrade, L. (2003) Headache complaints associated with psychiatric comorbidity in a population-based sample. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 36, 1425-1432. doi:10.1590/S0100-879X2003001000021
[15] Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Lee, S., Posada-Villa, J., Kovess, V., Angermeyer, M.C., Levinson, D., de Girolamo, G., Nakane, H., Mneimneh, Z., Lara, C., de Graaf, R., Scott, K.M., Gureje, O., Stein, D.J., Haro, J.M., Bromet, E.J., Kessler, R.C., Alonso, J. and Von Korff, M. (2007) Mental disorders among persons with chronic back or neck pain: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys. Pain, 129, 332-342. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2007.01.022
[16] Woolley, S.B., Fredman, L., Goethe, J.W., Lincoln, A.K. and Heeren, T. (2008) Headache complaints and the risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviors. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196, 822-828. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e31818b4e4f
[17] Tang, N.K. and Crane, C. (2006) Suicidality in chronic pain: A review of the prevalence, risk factors and psychological links. Psychological Medicine, 36, 575-586. doi:10.1017/S0033291705006859
[18] Venkoba Rao, A. (1990) Physical illness, pain, and suicidal behavior. Crisis, 11, 48-56.
[19] Lee, L.K., Chen, P.C., Lee, K.K. and Kaur, J. (2006) Menstruation among adolescent girls in Malaysia: A cross-sectional school survey. Singapore Medical Journal, 47, 869-874.
[20] McCain, J.R. (1967) Clinical criticism of the oral contraceptive pills. Transactions of the New England Obstetrical and Gynecological Society, 21, 115-129.
[21] Yoshimasu, K., Kondo, T., Tokunaga, S., Kanemitsu, Y., Sugahara, H., Akamine, M., Fujisawa, K., Miyashita, K. and Kubo, C. (2009) Mental and somatic symptoms related to suicidal ideation in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan. International Journal of General Medicine, 2, 163-170. doi:10.2147/IJGM.S6631
[22] Sugahara, H., Akamine, M., Kondo, T., Fujisawa, K., Yoshimasu, K., Tokunaga, S. and Kubo, C. (2004) Somatic symptoms most often associated with depression in an urban hospital medical setting in Japan. Psychiatry Research, 128, 305-311. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2004.06.015
[23] Marcus, S.M., Kerber, K.B., Rush, A.J., Wisniewski, S.R., Nierenberg, A., Balasubramani, G.K., Ritz, L., Kornstein, S., Young, E.A. and Trivedi, M.H. (2008) Sex differences in depression symptoms in treatment-seeking adults: Confirmatory analyses from the sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 49, 238-246. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2007.06.012
[24] Dennis, M., Baillon, S., Brugha, T., Lindesay, J., Stewart, R. and Meltzer, H. (2009) The influence of limitation in activity of daily living and physical health on suicidal ideation: Results from a population survey of Great Britain. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 44, 608-613. doi:10.1007/s00127-008-0474-2
[25] Miki, O. (2002) The clinical feature of depression with psychosomatic medicine in primary care. In Japanese, Japanese Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine, 42, 585-591.
[26] Feldman, M.D., Franks, P., Duberstein, P.R., Vannoy, S., Epstein, R. and Kravitz, RL. (2007) Let’s not talk about it: Suicide inquiry in primary care. Annals of Family Medicine, 5, 412-418. doi:10.1370/afm.719
[27] Griffiths, K.M., Nakane, Y., Christensen, H., Yoshioka, K., Jorm, A.F. and Nakane, H. (2006) Stigma in response to mental disorders: A comparison of Australia and Japan. BMC Psychiatry, 6, 21. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-6-21
[28] Kawakami, N., Takeshima, T., Ono, Y., Uda, H., Nakane, Y., Nakamura, Y., Tachimori, H., Iwata, N., Nakane, H., Watanabe, M., Naganuma, Y., Furukawa, T.A., Hata, Y., Kobayashi, M., Miyake, Y. and Kikkawa, T. (2008) Twelve-month prevalence, severity, and treatment of common mental disorders in communities in Japan: The World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey. In: Kessler, R.C. and üstün, T.B., Eds., The WHO World Mental Health Surveys, Cambridge University Press, New York, 474-485.
[29] Sheehan, D.V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K.H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., Hergueta, T., Baker, R. and Dunbar, G.C. (1998) The Mini-international neuropsychiatric interview: The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 22-33.
[30] Sheehan, D.V., Lecrubier, Y., Otsubo, T., Miyaoka, H. and Kamijima, K. (2003) Mini-international neuropsychiatric interview Japanese version 5.0.0. In Japanese, Seiwa Shoten Publishers, Tokyo.
[31] Otsubo, T., Tanaka, K., Koda, R., Shinoda, J., Sano, N., Tanaka, S., Aoyama, H., Mimura, M. and Kamijima, K. (2005) Reliability and validity of Japanese version of the Mini-international neuropsychiatric interview. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 59, 517-526. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2005.01408.x
[32] Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan. (2007) Standard program for health screening and education (final version). http://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/shakaihosho/iryouseido01/info03a.html
[33] Hamilton, M. (1967) Development of a social scale for primary depressive illness. The British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6, 278-296.
[34] Kawakami, N., Takeshima, T., Ono, Y., Uda, H., Hata, Y., Nakane, Y., Nakane, H., Iwata, N., Furukawa, T.A. and Kikkawa, T. (2005) Twelve-month prevalence, severity, and treatment of common mental disorders in communities in Japan: preliminary finding from the World Mental Health Japan Survey 2002-2003. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 59, 441-452. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2005.01397.x
[35] Breslau, N., Lipton, R.B., Stewart, W.F., Schultz, L.R. and Welch, K.M. (2003) Comorbidity of migraine and depression: Investigating potential etiology and prognosis. Neurology, 60, 1308-1312.
[36] Bigal, M.E. and Lipton, R.B. (2006) Modifiable risk factors for migraine progression. Headache, 46, 1334-1343. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2006.00577.x

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.