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The Bacterial Isolates and Plasmid Profile of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Producers Causing Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant Women in Uyo, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.37004    2,906 Downloads   3,695 Views  

ABSTRACT

Background: Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are enzymes that compromise the efficacy of all beta-lactams and are spread by plasmids. They are of public health importance the world over; however, in Nigeria in general and Uyo in particular, tests for their detection are not routinely done in hospital laboratories despite increase in treatment failures observed for common clinical conditions like urinary tract infection. Objective: To isolate ESBLs producing uropathogens and the plasmid underlying their resistance to antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Three hundred urine specimens (n = 300) were collected from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at St. Lukes Hospital, Anua, cultured and incubated according to accepted standard. Identification of isolates was done using Microbact 24E (Oxoid, UK) system. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli (42%) followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (21%), Klebsiella oxytoca (12%), Citrobacter spp. (5%), Proteus mirabilis (7%), Enterobacter spp. (12%) and Acinetobacter baumanii (1%). The isolated bacteria were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) recommended disc diffusion method. A Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST) and Phenotypic Disk Confirmatory Test (PDCT) were performed to determine ESBL production. Chromagar ESBL was also used to test for the presence of ESBL producing isolates. The plasmid content of ESBL producing isolates and their participation in drug resistance were investigated. Results: Of the 80 bacterial isolates causing urinary tract infection in these women, the ESBL producers were found to be 16 (20%). Out of these 16 ESBL producing urogenital isolates Klebsiella pneumonia (8, 50%) was the most prevalent. Others include Escherichia coli (38%), Klebsiella oxytoca (6%) and Enterobacter cloacae (6). Plasmid content of ESBL producing isolates was found to be 87.5%. Conclusion: The Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase producing uropathogens mainly of plasmid origin are increasingly responsible for the cause of community acquired urinary tract infections in pregnant women in Uyo.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Onwuezobe, I. and Orok, F. (2015) The Bacterial Isolates and Plasmid Profile of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Producers Causing Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant Women in Uyo, Nigeria. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 3, 25-30. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2015.37004.

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