Share This Article:

Fixation Effects on Forward and Backward Recall in a Spatial Working Memory Task

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:569KB) PP. 727-733
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.66071    2,363 Downloads   2,901 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate whether fixation on the items to be remembered provided a beneficial effect on spatial working memory. A spatial working memory task based on the Corsi blocks task was assigned to 24 participants (12 men, 12 women; M age = 21.5 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18 - 24) who were later asked to recall a sequence of targets in forward and backward order. When participants were asked to memorize the sequence while maintaining fixation on each target, both beneficial and disruptive effects were found in the recall performance for backward recall, but not for forward recall. Results suggest that some memory processes that proceed without fixation on the presented items are more important for backward recall.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Oi, Y. , Ikeda, Y. , Okuzumi, H. , Kokubun, M. , Hamada, T. & Sawa, T. (2015). Fixation Effects on Forward and Backward Recall in a Spatial Working Memory Task. Psychology, 6, 727-733. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.66071.

References

[1] Awh, E., Jonides, J., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (1998). Rehearsal in Spatial Working Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 780-790.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.24.3.780
[2] Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working Memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[3] Cornoldi, C., & Mammarella, I. C. (2008). A Comparison of Backward and Forward Spatial Spans. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 674-682.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470210701774200
[4] Fischer, M. H. (2001). Probing Spatial Working Memory with the Corsi Blocks Task. Brain and Cognition, 45, 143-154.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brcg.2000.1221
[5] Godijn, R., & Theeuwes, J. (2012). Overt Is No Better than Covert When Rehearsing Visuo-Spatial Information in Working Memory. Memory & Cognition, 40, 52-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13421-011-0132-x
[6] Isaacs, E. B., & Vargha-Khadem, F. (1989). Differential Course of Development of Spatial and Verbal Memory Span: A Normative Study. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7, 377-380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-835X.1989.tb00814.x
[7] Kessels, R. P., van den Berg, E., Ruis, C., & Brands, A. M. (2008). The Backward Span of the Corsi Block-Tapping Task and Its Association with the WAIS-III Digit Span. Assessment, 15, 426-434.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191108315611
[8] Lawrence, B. M., Myerson, J., & Abrams, R. A. (2004). Interference with Spatial Working Memory: An Eye Movement Is More than a Shift of Attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 488-494.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03196600
[9] Mammarella, I. C., & Cornoldi, C. (2005). Sequence and Space: The Critical Role of a Backward Spatial Span in the working Memory Deficit of Visuospatial Learning Disabled Children. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22, 1055-1068.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02643290442000509
[10] Milner, B. (1971). Interhemispheric Differences in the Localization of Psychological Processes in man. British Medical Bulletin, 27, 272-277.
[11] Parmentier, F. B., & Andres, P. (2006). The Impact of Path Crossing on Visuo-Spatial Serial Memory: Encoding or Rehearsal Effect? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 1867-1874.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470210600872154
[12] Parmentier, F. B., Elford, G., & Maybery, M. (2005). Transitional Information in Spatial Serial Memory: Path Characteristics Affect Recall Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31, 412-427.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.31.3.412
[13] Pearson, D., & Sahraie, A. (2003). Oculomotor Control and the Maintenance of Spatially and Temporally Distributed Events in Visuo-Spatial Working Memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 56, 1089-1111.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724980343000044
[14] Postle, B. R., Idzikowski, C., Della Sala, S., Logie, R. H., & Baddeley, A. D. (2006). The Selective Disruption of Spatial Working Memory by Eye Movements. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 100-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470210500151410
[15] Saint-Aubin, J., Tremblay, S., & Jalbert, A. (2007). Eye Movements and Serial Memory for Visual-Spatial Information: Does Time Spent Fixating Contribute to Recall? Experimental Psychology, 54, 264-272.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169.54.4.264
[16] Smyth, M. M. (1996). Interference with Rehearsal in Spatial Working Memory in the Absence of Eye Movements. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49, 940-949.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713755669
[17] Smyth, M. M., & Scholey, K. A. (1994). Interference in Immediate Spatial Memory. Memory & Cognition, 22, 1-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03202756
[18] Tremblay, S., Saint-Aubin, J., & Jalbert, A. (2006). Rehearsal in Serial Memory for Visual-Spatial Information: Evidence from Eye Movements. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 452-457.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03193869
[19] Vandierendonck, A., & Szmalec, A. (2004). An Asymmetry in the Visuo-Spatial Demands of Forward and Backward Recall in the Corsi Blocks Task. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 23, 225-231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/MEEH-UYHG-UY9J-MQ04
[20] Vandierendonck, A., & Szmalec, A. (Eds.) (2011). Spatial Working Memory. Hove: Psychology Press.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.