The Effects of Mental Imagery and Cardiac Coherence on Mental Skills of Tunisian Karate Players at School Age


The aim of our research consisted in checking the influence of the mental coaching using the mental imagery and relaxation based on cardiac coherence, on the improvement of the cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions of the Tunisian karate Elite at school age. Our study was about to check if the Tunisian karate Elite at school age who had undergone a mental coaching has a better mental profile than their counterparts of other sporting disciplines and karate players with usual training method. Our sample consisted on an experimental group (N = 24 athletes) and control group (N = 22 athletes), all aged from 16 to 19 years. The experimental group followed for 10 months a psychological and mental coaching. The control group continued to train normally for the same period of time. To assess the mental skills of the participants, we used the OMSAT-3 (Guelmami et al., 2014). Our study showed that a 10 month mental coaching was needed to improve 4 mental skills, i.e. “goal setting” “relaxation”, “imagery” and “mental practices”. Our findings sustained the importance of a three-dimensional mental coaching in relation to one basic skill (goal setting), a psychosomatic skill (relaxation) and two cognitive skills (imagery and mental practice).

Share and Cite:

Hamrouni, S. , Alem, J. , Baert, S. and Bouguerra, I. (2015) The Effects of Mental Imagery and Cardiac Coherence on Mental Skills of Tunisian Karate Players at School Age. Advances in Physical Education, 5, 107-115. doi: 10.4236/ape.2015.52014.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Abrezol, R. (2002). Searching Excellence, How to Improve Performance? Vivez Soleil.
[2] Andrew, M., Grobbelaar, H., & Wand Potgieter, J. C. (2007). Sport Psychological Skill Levels and Related Psychosocial Factors That Distinguish between Rugby Union Players of Different Participation Levels. Physical Education and Recreation, 29, 1-14.
[3] Baert, S., & Dufour, Y. (2007). Coping and Emotion in Physical Education and Sport: Interests and Contributions to Mental Preparation. Physical Education and Sports Contribution to Education and Wellbeing (pp. 103-128). Regional AEEPS of Lille.
[4] Beckmann, J., & Elbe, A. (2008). Practice of Sport Psychology in Combat and Sport Performance and Combat Sports. Balingen: Spitta.
[5] Brown, M. B., & Forsythe, A. B. (1974). The Small Sample Behavior of Some Statistics with Test of Equality of Several Means. Tecnometrics, 16, 129-132.
[6] Calmels, C., & Fournier, J. (1999). The Effects of a Mental Training Program Combined with a Physical Practice of Gymnastic on the Enhancement of Imagery. STAPS Journal France, 49, 64-68.
[7] Calmels, C., Arripe-Longueville, F., Fournier, J. F., & Soulard, A. (2003). Mental Skills among Elite Female Gymnasts: An Exploration of the Relative Influence of Mental Training and Natural Learning Experiences. International Journal of Sport Exercise Psychology, 1, 327-352.
[8] Conover, W. J., Johnson, M. E., & Johnson, M. M. (1981). A Comparative Study of Test for Homogeneity of Variance with Applications to the Outer Continental Shelf Bidding Data. Tecnometrics, 23, 357-361.
[9] Cox, R. H. (2005). Psychologie du Sport (pp. 331-344). Bruxelles: De Boeck.
[10] Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.
[11] Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2006). A Life Worth Living: Contributions to Positive Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
[12] Demuth, A., Czerniak, U., Krzykata, M., Wielinski, D., & Ziotkowska-lajp, E. (2007). Somatic Characteristic of Players Form Chosen National Teams of Field Hockey. Human Movement, 8, 21-31.
[13] Durand-Bush, N., & Salmela, J. H. (2001). The Development of Talent in Sport. New York: Wiley.
[14] Durand-Bush, N., & Salmela, J. H. (2002). The Development and Maintenance of Expert Athletic Performance: Perceptions of World and Olympic Champions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 154-171.
[15] Filimon, L., & Fournier, J. (2012). The Effect of Mindfulness Intervention on Table Tennis Performance: Case Study. Presented at the National Study Days of the French Society of Sport Psychology.
[16] Gould, D., Jackson, S., & Finch, L. (1993). Applied Research Life at the Top: The Experiences of U.S. National Champion Figure Skaters. Sport Psychologist, 7, 354-374.
[17] Guelmami, N., Hamrouni, S., & Agrebi, B. (2014). Psychological Profiles of Talented Male Youth Athletes in Team Sports Games. Journal of Physical Education and Sport Management, 5, 5-10.
[18] Guillot, A., Tolleran, C., & Collet, C. (2010). Does Motor Imagery Enhance Stretching and Flexibility? Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 291-298.
[19] Hoyek, N., Di Rienzo, F., Collet, Ch., Hoyek, F., & Guillot, A. (2013). The Therapeutic Role of Motor Imagery on the Functional Rehabilitation of a Stage II Shoulder Impingement Syndrome. Disability and Rehabilitation, 36, 1113-1119.
[20] Levene, H. (1960). Contributions to Probability and Statistics (pp. 278-292). Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.
[21] Louis, M., Guillot, A., Maton, S., Doyon J., & Collet C. (2008). Effect of Imagined Movement Speed on Subsequent Motor Performance. Journal of Motor Behavior, 40, 117-132.
[22] O’hare, D. (2012). Cardiac Coherence 365. Paris: Thierry Souccar.
[23] Olejnik, S. J., & Algina, J. (1987). Type I Error Rates and Power Estimates of Selected Parametric Tests of Scale. Journal of Educational Statistics, 12, 45-61.
[24] Orlick, T., & McCaffrey, N. (1991). Mental Training with Children for Sport and Life. The Sport Psychologist, 5, 322-334.
[25] Schreiber, D. S. (2003). Healing Stress, Depression Anxiety without Medicals Neither Psychanalyse. Paris: Robert Laffont.
[26] Tenenbaum, G., & Eklund, R. (2007). Handbook of Sport Psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
[27] Thill, E., & Fleurance, P. (1998). Practical Guide of Psychological of the Sportsman. Paris: Vigot.
[28] Williams, J. M., & Krane, V. (2001). Psychological Characteristics of Peak Performance. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance (4th ed., pp. 137-147). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.