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The Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Effects on Cognition in Persons with Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review of the Literature

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DOI: 10.4236/apd.2015.42005    3,867 Downloads   4,746 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review of the literature is to examine the cerebrovascular and cardiovascular effects on cognition in persons with Parkinson’s disease. Relevance: Physical therapy treatment of persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD) has traditionally focused on lessening the impact of disease severity by improving quality of life and functional capacity. Research has shown that quality of life in persons with PD is not only significantly affected by motor symptoms, but also by the presence of defined non-motor symptoms such as cerebrovascular perfusion, cardiovascular dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. This study seeks to determine a causative effect among these non-motor symptoms with the intention to better manage cognitive impairment in persons with PD. Methods: A literature search was conducted utilizing the following databases: Scopus, PubMed, and CINAHL. After evaluating and grading studies using the Downs and Black Checklist, a total of seven studies remained for the final review. Results: Five common domains of cognition emerged throughout the seven studies: executive function, attention, verbal memory and fluency, visual memory, and working memory. Considering the articles reviewed, a relationship between cerebrovascular and cardiovascular deficiency and cognitive impairment in persons with PD was established. Conclusions: Persons with PD and certain cerebrovascular and cardiovascular risk factors, including orthostatic hypotension and systemic hypertension, should be referred to appropriate professionals for comprehensive neuropsychological testing secondary to an increased risk for more severe cognitive deficit.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Carey, A. , Julian, R. , Kristeller, K. , Leonard, P. , Palmer, S. and Krisa, L. (2015) The Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Effects on Cognition in Persons with Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Advances in Parkinson's Disease, 4, 28-42. doi: 10.4236/apd.2015.42005.

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