Share This Article:

Pig Compost Use on Zinc and Copper Concentrations in Soils and Corn Plants

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:315KB) PP. 524-536
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.64057    3,815 Downloads   4,203 Views  

ABSTRACT

The use of pig compost (PC) in agricultural land has increased in Chile in the last years. This organic amendment is a valuable nutritional source for crops, but its applying must be done in a controlled manner since it exhibited high copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. A short-term field experiment was conducted out to study the effects of increasing PC rates on the production and quality corn crop in two soils located at south central Chile. Five treatments were evaluated: control without fertilization (C), conventional fertilization (CF) (350 kg N ha-1), and three increasing PC rates (15.33, 30.65, and 61.31 Mg·ha-1, corresponding to 350, 700, and 1400 kg N ha-1, respectively) in a split plot design with four replicates. The overall results indicated that dry matter production, grain yield, and plant Zn and Cu concentrations were similar among fertilization sources and rates. Extractable soil Zn concentration exhibited a rate-related increase of PC in both locations, while Cu concentration exhibited this behavior only at the soil located in Chillan. Nevertheless, the values obtained were below of those considered phytotoxic levels. Therefore, the contribution of Zn and Cu through PC applying at different rates to the soils studied showed a slight affect in soil extractable Zn and Cu values without negatively effects on quantity and quality corn crop. The organic amendment applied can be a good and cheaper substitute to conventional fertilization, although further monitoring of Zn and Cu soil levels should be carried out to avoid any environmental risk.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Hirzel, J. and Walter, I. (2015) Pig Compost Use on Zinc and Copper Concentrations in Soils and Corn Plants. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 524-536. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.64057.

References

[1] INN (2005) Norma Chilena de calidad de compost. NCh 2880. of 2005. Instituto Nacional de Normalización, Santiago.
[2] Hirzel, J. and Salazar, F. (2011) Uso de Enmiendas Orgánicas como Fuente de Fertilización en Cultivos. Fertilización de Cultivos en Chile. In: Hirzel, J., Ed., Colección Libros INIA No. 28, Chillán.
[3] Hirzel, J., Cerda, F., Millas, P. and France, A. (2012) Compost Tea Effects on Production and Extraction of Nitrogen in Ryegrass Cultivated on Soil Amended with Commercial Compost. Compost & Science Utilization, 20, 97-104.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2012.10737032
[4] Eghball, B. and Power, J. (1999) Phosphorus and Nitrogen Based Manure and Compost Applications: Maize Production and Soil Phosphorus. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63, 895-901.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1999.634895x
[5] Eghball, B. (2000) Nitrogen Mineralization from Field-Applied Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure or Compost. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 2024-2030.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2000.6462024x
[6] Hartz, T.K., Mitchell, J.P. and Giannini, C. (2000) Nitrogen and Carbon Mineralization Dynamics of Manures and Compost. HortScience, 35, 209-212.
[7] Fortun, C. and Fortun, A. (1995) Effects of Composted Sewage Sludge on the Residual Ion Content of Soils. Agrochimica, 39, 53-60.
[8] Hirzel, J., Matus, I., Novoa, F. and Walter, I. (2007) Effect of Poultry Litter on Silage Maize (Zea mays L.) Production and Nutrient Uptake. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 5, 102-109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2007051-226
[9] Pang, X.P. and Letey, J. (2000) Organic Farming: Challenge of Timing Nitrogen Availability to Crop Nitrogen Requirements. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 247-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2000.641247x
[10] Chadwick, D.R., John, F., Pain, B.F., Chambers, B.J. and Williams, J. (2000) Plant Uptake of Nitrogen from the Organic Nitrogen Fraction of Animal Manures: A Laboratory Experiment. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 134, 159-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021859699007510
[11] Hirzel, J., Undurraga, P. and Walter, I. (2010) Nitrogen Mineralization and Released Nutrients in a Volcanic Soil Amended with Poultry Litter. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 70, 113-121.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392010000100012
[12] Afyuni, M. and Schulin, R. (2002) Repetitive and Residual Effects of Sewage Sludge Application on Extractability and Plant Uptake of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd. Proceedings of 12th International Soil Conservation Organization Conference, Beijing, 26-31 May 2002, 250-255.
[13] Gascho, G.J., Hubbard, R.K., Brenneman, T.B., Johnson, A.W., Sumner, D.R. and Harris, G.H. (2001) Effects of Broiler Litter in an Irrigated, Double-Cropped, Conservation-Tilled Rotation. Agronomy Journal, 93, 1315-1320.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2001.1315
[14] Pierzynski, G.M. (1994) Plant Nutrient Aspects of Sewage Sludge. In: Clapp, C.E., Larson, W.E. and Dowdy, R.H., Eds., Sewage Sludge: Land Utilization and the Environment, SSSA Miscellaneous Publication, Madison, 21-25.
[15] Pederson, G.A., Brink, G.E. and Fairbrother, T.E. (2002) Nutrient Uptake in Plant Parts of Sixteen Forages Fertilized with Poultry Litter: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Copper, and Zinc. Agronomy Journal, 94, 895-904.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2002.8950
[16] Martínez, F., Cuevas, G., Calvo, R. and Walter, I. (2003) Biowaste Effects on Soil and Native Plants in a Semiarid Ecosystem. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32, 472-479.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2003.4720
[17] Walter, I., Martínez, F., Alonso, L. and de Gracia Gabriela Cuevas, J. (2002) Extractable Soil Heavy Metals Following the Cessation of Biosolids Application to Agricultural Soil. Environmental Pollution, 117, 315-321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00181-6
[18] Pascual, I., Antolín, M.C., García, C., Polo, A. and Sánchez-Díaz, M. (2005) Plant Availability of Heavy Metals in a Soil Amended with a High Dose of Sewage Sludge under Drought Conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 40, 291-299.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00374-004-0763-1
[19] USDA (1994) Reference to Soil Taxonomy. USDA, Washington DC.
[20] CIREN (1999) Descripciones de suelos materiales y símbolos: Estudio Agrológico VIII Región. Publicación Ciren No. 121, Santiago, 583 p.
[21] CIREN (1983) Descripciones de suelos: Estudio Agrológico VII Región. Publicación Ciren No. 45, Santiago, 186 p.
[22] Tisdale, S., Nelson, W., Havlin, J. and Beaton, J. (1999) Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. An Introduction to Nutrient Management. 6th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, 503 p.
[23] SAS Institute (1989) Usage and Reference. Version 6, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, 501 p.
[24] Box, G. and Cox, D. (1964) An Analysis of Transformations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 26, 211-252.
[25] Etchevers, J. and Padilla, J. (2007) Diagnóstico de la Fertilidad del Suelo. In: Alcántar y Trejo-Téllez, Ed., Nutrición de cultivos, Ediciones Mundi-Prensa, México.
[26] Hirzel, J., Leon, L., Flores, F. and Cerda, F. (2013) Manure-Based Organic Soil Amendments Provide an Adequate Nutritional Source for Corn Production in Chile When Combined with Urea Applications. Compost Science & Utilization, 21, 134-146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2013.859529
[27] Benton, J. (1998) Plant Nutrition Manual. CRC Press LLC, Washington.
[28] Cuevas, G. and Walter, I. (2004) Metales Pesados en Maíz (Zea mays L.) Cultivado en un Suelo Enmendado con Diferentes Dosis de Compost de Lodo Residual. Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental, 20, 59-68.
[29] Sims, J.T. and Wolf, D.C. (1994) Poultry Waste Management: Agricultural and Environmental Issues. Advances in Agronomy, 52, 1-83.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60621-5
[30] Fernández, M. (1995) Fertilización Nitrogenada y su Eficiencia en Maíz de Grano. Simiente, 65, 122-132.
[31] Eghball, B. (2002) Soil Properties as Influenced by Phosphorus- and Nitrogen-Based Manure and Compost Applications. Agronomy Journal, 94, 128-135.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2002.0128

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.