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Evaluation of Some Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in Marine Environment of Alexandria Coastline, Egypt

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DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.517153    3,380 Downloads   3,949 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The present work is carried out to obtain quantitative information of some natural radioactive materials and heavy metals in water and sediment samples along the Alexandria Coastline, as a step to construct the baseline map of the background radioactivity level in the Egyptian environment and also as a base data to assess the future physicochemical changes of surface coastal water and sediment in the studied area. The distribution of natural gamma emitting radionuclides such as 238U, 232Th and 40K has been established by gamma spectrometry. The results show that the area of Alexandria coast is affected by the existence of high back-ground radiation from the Rashid coast at the eastern side which has high levels of radioisotope concentrations due to black sand deposits which are dominant in this area. The absorbed dose rate (D, nGy·h-1), annual effective dose equivalent, external hazard index (Hex) and representative level index (Ir) of the investigated radioactive materials were calculated. The concentration of Pb2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Zn2+ and Cr3+ ions has been determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The total dissolved solids (TDS) in water samples ranged from 33,000 mg/l to 42,000 mg/l, the salinity ranged from 37.9% to 40.5% and pH ranged from 7.6 to 7.9. Some of the sediment quality guidelines are calculated and they are the metal pollution index (MPI), the contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (Cdeg), and Pollution load index (PLI).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Atta, E. and Zakaria, K. (2014) Evaluation of Some Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in Marine Environment of Alexandria Coastline, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 1618-1629. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.517153.

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