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Antileishmanial Potential of Piper nigrum Seed Extracts against Leishmania donovani

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DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.44025    2,957 Downloads   3,500 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a pestilent form of leishmaniasis that chiefly impinges the poorest sections of the society. The prototypical therapeutic interventions in vogue are handicapped due to toxicity and alarming increase in drug resistance. In the absence of vaccines, progressive emergence of HIV-VL co-infection and relapse in the form of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, have fuelled the quest for alternative therapies. Herein, we report antileishmanial activity of Piper nigrum, which is endowed with multifarous medicinal properties. Hexane (PNH) and ethanolic (PNE) extracts of P. nigrum substantially inhibited the growth of Leishmania donovani promastigotes with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 31.6 and 37.8 μg·ml-1, respectively. Growth reversibility analysis revealed the leishmanicidal effect of PNH which caused cell shrinkage and flagellar disruption. In contrast, PNE treated promastigotes showed partial effect. PNH and PNE also abrogated the growth of intra-macrophagic Leishmania amastigotes with IC50 of 14.6 and 18.3 μg·ml-1, respectively. Anti-amastigote efficacy of PNH was accompanied by higher selectivity over host macrophages than PNE. Gas-Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry showed the presence of several secondary metabolites such as trans-β-caryophyllene, piperine, β-bisabolene and other sesquiterpenes in PNH and piperine, δ-(sup 9)-cis oleic acid and piperyline in PNE. Conclusively, our work revealed discernible antileishmanial activity of P. nigrum extracts.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Chouhan, G. , Islamuddin, M. , Ahmad, F. , Sahal, D. and Afrin, F. (2014) Antileishmanial Potential of Piper nigrum Seed Extracts against Leishmania donovani. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, 4, 228-235. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.44025.

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