Share This Article:

Perinatally Imposed Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency Changes Renal Function of the Adult Rat

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:3027KB) PP. 1991-1999
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.520210    4,619 Downloads   4,896 Views  

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate whether essential fatty acid deficiency early during development could change the content of phospholipids and cholesterol in whole membranes of the kidney and renal function at adult life. For this, female Wistar rats were maintained on a standard diet or on an essential fatty acid deficient diet (EFAD) from the age of 30 days, throughout the pregnancy, at age of 90 days and until the weaning, for evaluation of their offspring. Weanling rats were maintained on a standard diet until the age of 13 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary sodium excretion (UNa+V), positive cells for angiotensin II (Ang II) and cholesterol and phospholipids in whole membranes of the kidney were evaluated. Cholesterol, total phospholipids and the relative content of classes of phospholipids were unaltered in the cortex and medullary kidney. SBP, GFR and UNa+V were also unaltered in the EFAD group. However, the number of positive cells for Ang II in the tubulointerstitial area of the renal cortex was higher in the EFAD group. Therefore, these findings indicated that although cholesterol and phospholipids were unaltered and urinary sodium excretion was unchanged, Ang II expression in the kidney was erroneously programmed and later hindering of renal function was not ruled out.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Ribeiro, V. , Cabral, E. , Silva, A. , Pereira-Junior, S. , Lima, V. , Carvalho, V. , Filho, L. , Paixão, A. and Castro-Chaves, C. (2014) Perinatally Imposed Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency Changes Renal Function of the Adult Rat. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 1991-1999. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.520210.

References

[1] Holman, R.T. (1998) The Slow Discovery of the Importance of Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids in Human Health. The Journal of Nutrition, 128, 427-433.
[2] Williams, J.M., Murphy, S., Burke, M. and Roman, R.J. (2010) 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraeonic Acid: A New Target for the Treatment of Hypertension. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 56, 336-344.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181f04b1c
[3] Innis, S.M. (2007) Dietary (n-3) Fatty Acids and Brain Development. The Journal of Nutrition, 137, 855-859.
[4] Janssen, C.I. and Kiliaan, A.J. (2014) Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LCPUFA) from Genesis to Senescence: The Influence of LCPUFA on Neural Development, Aging, and Neurodegeneration. Progress in Lipid Research, 53, 1-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2013.10.002
[5] Armitage, J.A., Pearce, A.D., Sinclair, A.J., Vingrys, A.J., Weisinger, R.S. and Weisinger, H.S. (2003) Increased Blood Pressure Later in Life May Be Associated with Perinatal n-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency. Lipids, 38, 459-464.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-003-1084-y
[6] Paixão, A.D., Nunes, F.A., Léger, C. and Aléssio, M.L. (2002) Renal Effects of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in Hydropenic and Volume-Expanded Rats. Kidney & Blood Pressure Research, 25, 27-33.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000049432
[7] Soares, A.F., Santiago, R.C., Aléssio, M.L., Descomps, B. and de Castro-Chaves, C. (2005) Biochemical, Functional, and Histochemical Effects of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in Rat Kidney. Lipids, 40, 1125-1133.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-005-1476-z
[8] Oliveira, F.S., Vieira-Filho, L.D., Cabral, E.V., Sampaio, L.S., Silva, P.A., Carvalho, V.C., Vieyra, A., Einicker-Lamas, M., Lima, V.L. and Paixão, A.D. (2013) Reduced Cholesterol Levels in Renal Membranes of Undernourished Rats May Account for Urinary Na+ Loss. European Journal of Nutrition, 52, 1233-1242.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-012-0434-1
[9] Levy, E., Garofalo, C., Rouleau, T., Gavino, V. and Bendayan, M. (1996) Impact of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency on Hepatic Sterol Metabolism in Rats. Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, 23, 848-857.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.510230428
[10] Reeves, P.G. (1997) Components of the AIN-93 Diets as Improvements in the AIN-76A Diet. The Journal of Nutrition, 127, 838-841.
[11] Li, Y., Seifert, M.F., Ney, D.M., Grahn, M., Grant, A.L., Allen, K.G. and Watkins, B.A. (1999) Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acids Alter Serum IGF-I and IGF Binding Protein Concentrations and Reduce Bone Formation in Rats Fed (n-6) or (n-3) Fatty Acids. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 14, 1153-1162.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.1999.14.7.1153
[12] Folch, J., Lees, M. and Sloane Stanley, G.H. (1957) A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of Total Lipides from Animal Tissues. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226, 497-509.
[13] Lima, V.L., Gillett, M.P., Silva, M.N., Maia, M.M.D. and Filho, M.C. (1986) Changes in the Lipid Composition of Erythrocytes during Prolonged Fasting in Lizard (Tropidurus torquatos) and Rat (Rattus norvegicus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry, 83, 691-695.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-0491(86)90319-6
[14] Bartlett, G.R. (1959) Colorimetric Assay Methods for Free and Phosphorylated Glyceric Acids. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 234, 469-471.
[15] Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. (1951) Protein Measurement with the Folin Phenol Reagent. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193, 265-275.
[16] Vieira-Filho, L.D., Cabral, E.V., Santos, F.T., Coimbra, T.M. and Paixão, A.D. (2011) Alpha-Tocopherol Prevents Intrauterine Undernutrition-Induced Oligonephronia in Rats. Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association, 26, 2019-2029.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-011-1908-8
[17] Croft, K.D., Codde, J.P., Barden, A., Vandongen, R. and Beilin, L.J. (1985) Onset of Changes in Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition and Prostaglandin Synthesis Following Dietary Manipulation with n-6 and n-3 Fatty Acids in the Rat. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 834, 316-323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-2760(85)90004-9
[18] Harant-Farrugia, I., Garcia, J., Iglesias-Osma, M.C., Garcia-Barrado, M.J. and Carpéné, C. (2014) Is There an Optimal Dose for Dietary Linoleic Acid? Lessons from Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency Supplementation and Adipocyte Functions in Rats. Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry, 70, 615-627.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-014-0315-6
[19] Palsdottir, V., Wickman, A., Strandvik, B., Gabrielsson, B.G. and Olsson, B. (2011) Prenatal Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in Mice Results in Long-Term Gender-Specific Effects on Body Weight and Glucose Metabolism. Molecular Medicine Reports, 4, 731-737.
[20] Palsdottir, V., Wickman, A., Andersson, N., Hezaveh, R., Olsson, B., Gabrielsson, B.G. and Strandvik, B. (2011) Postnatal Deficiency of Essential Fatty Acids in Mice Results in Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity and Low Plasma Insulin during Adulthood. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 84, 85-92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2010.11.002
[21] Rafael, J., Patzelt, J., Sch?fer, H. and Elmadfa, I. (1984) The Effect of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency on Basal Respiration and Function of Liver Mitochondria in Rats. The Journal of Nutrition, 114, 255-262.
[22] Rafael, J., Patzelt, J. and Elmadfa, I. (1988) Effect of Dietary Linoleic Acid and Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency on Resting Metabolism, Nonshivering Thermogenesis and Brown Adipose Tissue in the Rat. The Journal of Nutrition, 118, 627-632.
[23] Desai, M. and Hales, C.N. (1997) Role of Fetal and Infant Growth in Programming Metabolism in Later Life. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 72, 329-348.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0006323196005026
[24] Korotkova, M., Gabrielsson, B., Hanson, L.A. and Strandvik, B. (2001) Maternal Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency Depresses Serum Leptin Levels in Suckling Rat Pups. Journal of Lipid Research, 42, 359-365.
[25] Coupé, B., Grit, I., Darmaun, D. and Parnet, P. (2009) The Timing of “Catch-Up Growth” Affects Metabolism and Appetite Regulation in Male Rats Born with Intrauterine Growth Restriction. American Journal of Physiology, Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 297, 813-824.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00201.2009
[26] Breton, C., Lukaszewski, M.A., Risold, P.Y., Enache, M., Guillemot, J., Rivière, G., Delahaye, F., Lesage, J., Dutriez-Casteloot, I., Laborie, C. and Vieau, D. (2009) Maternal Prenatal Undernutrition Alters the Response of POMC Neurons to Energy Status Variation in Adult Male Rat Offspring. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, 296, 462-472.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.90740.2008
[27] Innis, S.M. (2003) Perinatal Biochemistry and Physiology of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. The Journal of Pediatrics, 143, 1-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/S0022-3476(03)00396-2
[28] Hofacer, R., Magrisso, I.J., Jandacek, R., Rider, T., Tso, P., Benoit, S.C. and McNamara, R.K. (2012) Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency Increases Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Expression and Activity Indices in Rat Liver: Positive Association with Non-Fasting Plasma Triglyceride Levels. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 86, 71-77.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2011.10.003
[29] Li, D., Weisinger, H.S., Weisinger, R.S., Mathai, M., Armitage, J.A., Vingrys, A.J. and Sinclair, A.J. (2006) Omega 6 to Omega 3 Fatty Acid Imbalance Early in Life Leads to Persistent Reductions in DHA Levels in Glycerophospholipids in Rat Hypothalamus Even after Long-Term Omega 3 Fatty Acid Repletion. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 74, 391-399.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2006.03.010
[30] Yosypiv, I.V., Boh, M.K., Spera, M.A. and El-Dahr, S.S. (2008) Downregulation of Spry-1, an Inhibitor of GDNF/Ret, Causes Angiotensin II-Induced Ureteric Bud Branching. Kidney International, 74, 1287-1293.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2008.378
[31] Abdel-Hakeem, A.K., Henry, T.Q., Magee, T.R., Desai, M., Ross, M.G., Mansano, R.Z., Torday, J.S. and Nast, C.C. (2008) Mechanisms of Impaired Nephrogenesis with Fetal Growth Restriction: Altered Renal Transcription and Growth Factor Expression. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 199, 252.e1-252.e7.
[32] Cabral, E.V., Vieira-Filho, L.D., Silva, P.A., Nascimento, W.S., Aires, R.S., Oliveira, F.S., Luzardo, R., Vieyra, A. and Paixão, A.D. (2012) Perinatal Na+ Overload Programs Raised Renal Proximal Na+ Transport and Enalapril-Sensitive Alterations of Ang II Signaling Pathways during Adulthood. PLoS ONE, 7, e43791.
http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0043791&representation=PDF
[33] Vieira-Filho, L.D., Cabral, E.V., Farias, J.S., Silva, P.A., Muzi-Filho, H., Vieyra, A. and Paixão, A.D. (2014) Renal Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Altered Na+ Handling and Genesis of Hypertension during Adulthood in Prenatally Undernourished Rats. The British Journal of Nutrition, 24, 1-13.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.