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Ichthyological Overview and Remarks on Freshwater Fishes from Capim River, Lower Amazon Basin, Brazil

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DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.413068    3,758 Downloads   4,341 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The Capim River drainage should be considered small and thin by comparison with large Amazonian rivers. It rises by confluence of the Surubiú and Ararandeua rivers near 400 m high and their headwaters would be comfortably included in the Dry Emerged Lowland (terra firme) forest area of Sternberg’s Amazonian concept. Because of this reason the freshwater fish fauna of Capim River is comprised mainly by Amazonian fish families found in tributaries also with origin in terra firme areas. The ichthyofauna from the main channel of the poorly sampled Capim River, in the stretch between its confluence with Tauarí River and its mouth at Guamá River, is herein reported by way of rapid assessment. Also broad comparisons were made among freshwater fishes of the Capim with that from Tocantins and Guamá rivers. Two rapid access research surveys of collecting ichthyological material were performed in dry and humid periods of the year 1998 comprising the regional hydrologic cycle. The ichthyological diversity showed by the 461 studied specimens includes 79 species probably derived from Guamá and Tocantins rivers. These species are distributed between two situations: 1) downstream Capim River, at confluence with Guamá River, where is under tidal waters influence and periodically flooded, and 2) upriver Capim that is less humid and with water rapids, independent from sea hydrologic influence. This fish fauna includes local species common at high areas of the Amazonian Dry Emerged Lowland that are in part shared with that from Tocantins River. In view of these observations, we assume that the Capim River freshwater ichthyofauna may reflect diverse origin from the simple transfer of populations from Guamá River, but originate through a more complex process including the past ichthyofauna of the earlier drainages of terra firme forest and their reorganization.

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Garavello, J. and Oliveira, A. (2014) Ichthyological Overview and Remarks on Freshwater Fishes from Capim River, Lower Amazon Basin, Brazil. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 797-806. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.413068.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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