Share This Article:

Toughness Improvement of Geothermal Well Cement at up to 300°C: Using Carbon Microfiber

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:5131KB) PP. 177-190
DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2014.44020    3,684 Downloads   4,147 Views   Citations


This study aimed at assessing the usefulness of carbon microfiber (CMF) in improving the compressive-toughness of sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate/Class F fly ash foamed cement at hydrothermal temperatures of up to 300°C. When the CMFs came in contact with a pore solution of cement, their surfaces underwent alkali-caused oxidation, leading to the formation of metal (Na, Ca, Al)-complexed carboxylate groups. The extent of this oxidation was enhanced by the temperature increase, corresponding to the incorporation of more oxidation derivatives at higher temperatures. Although micro-probe examinations did not show any defects in the fibers, the enhanced oxidation engendered shrinkage of the interlayer spacing between the C-basal planes in CMFs, and a decline in their thermal stability. On the other hand, the complexed carboxylate groups present on the surfaces of oxidized fibers played a pivotal role in improving the adherence of fibers to the cement matrix. Such fiber/cement interfacial bonds contributed significantly to the excellent bridging effect of fibers, resistance to the cracks development and propagation, and to improvement of the post-crack material ductility. Consequently, the compressive toughness of the 85°-, 200°-, and 300°C-autoclaved foamed cements reinforced with 10 wt% CMF was 2.4-, 2.9-, and 3.1-fold higher than for cement without the reinforcement.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Sugama, T. and Pyatina, T. (2014) Toughness Improvement of Geothermal Well Cement at up to 300°C: Using Carbon Microfiber. Open Journal of Composite Materials, 4, 177-190. doi: 10.4236/ojcm.2014.44020.


[1] Gill, S., Pyatina, T. and Sugama, T. (2012) Thermal Shock-Resistant Cement. Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) Transactions, 36, 445-451.
[2] Lau, A. and Anson, M. (2006) Effect of High Temperatures on High Performance Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 36, 1698-1707.
[3] Banthia, N. and Sappakittipakorn, M. (2007) Toughness Enhancement in Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete through Fiber Hybridization. Cement and Concrete Research, 37, 1366-1372.
[4] Abrishambaf, A., Barros, J.A.O. and Cunha, V.M.C.F. (2013) Relation between Fiber Distribution and Post-Cracking Behavior in Steel Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Panels. Cement and Concrete Research, 51, 57-66.
[5] Marikunte, S., Aldea, C. and Shah, S.P. (1997) Durability of Glass Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites: Effect of Silica Fume and Metakaolin. Advanced Cement Based Materials, 5, 100-108.
[6] Purnell, P., Short, N.R., Page, C.L., Majumdar, A.J. and Walton, P.L. (1999) Accelerated Aging Characteristics of Glass-Fiber Reinforced Cement made with New Cementitious Materials. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 30, 1073-1080.
[7] Enfedaque, A., Cendon, D., Galvez, F. and Sanchez-Galvez, V. (2010) Analysis of Glass Fiber Reinforced Cement (GRC) Fracture Surfaces. Construction and Building Materials, 24, 1302-1308.
[8] Ozger, O.B., Girardi, F., Giannuzzi, G.M., Salomoni, V.A., Majorana, C.E., Fambri, L., Baldassino, N. and Di Maggio, R. (2013) Effect of Nylon Fibers on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Hardened Concrete for Energy Storage Systems. Materials and Design, 51, 989-997.
[9] Yap, S.P., Alengaram, U.J. and Jumaat, M.Z. (2013) Enhancement of Mechanical Properties in Polypropylene- and Nylon-Fiber Reinforced Oil Palm Shell Concrete. Materials and Design, 49, 1034-1041.
[10] Song, P.S., Hwang, S. and Sheu, B.C. (2005) Strength Properties of Nylon- and Polypropylene-Fiber-Reinforced Concretes. Cement and Concrete Research, 35, 1546-1550.
[11] Toutanji, H.A. (1999) Properties of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Silica Fume Expansive-Cement Concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 13, 171-177.
[12] Stroeven, P. (2000) Development of Hybrid Polypropylene-Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 30, 63-69.
[13] Kurtz, S. and Balaguru, P. (2000) Postcrack Creep of Polymeric Fiber-Reinforced Concrete in Flexure. Cement and Concrete Research, 30, 183-190.
[14] Tang, C.S., Shi, B., Gao, W., Chen, F.J. and Cai, Y. (2007) Strength and Mechanical Behavior of Short Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced and Cement Stabilized Clayey Soil. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 25, 194-202.
[15] Sukontasukkul, P. and Jamaswang, P. (2013) Use of Steel and Polypropylene Fibers to Improve Performance of Deep Soil-Cement Column. Construction and Building Materials, 29, 201-205.
[16] Larson, B.K., Drzal, L.T. and Sorousian, P. (1990) Carbon Fiber-Cement Adhesion in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. Composites, 21, 205-215.
[17] Toutanji, H.A., El-Korchi, T. and Katz, R.N. (1994) Strength and Reliability of Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Cement Composites. Cement and Concrete Composites, 16, 15-21.
[18] Graces, P., Fraile, J., Vilaplana-Ortego, E., Cazorla-Amoros, D., Alcocel, E.G. and Andion, L.G. (2005) Effect of Carbon Fibers on the Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Levels of Reinforced Portland Cement Mortars. Cement and Concrete Research, 35, 324-331.
[19] Wang, C., Li, K.Z., Li, H.J., Jiao, G.S., Lu, J. and Hou, D.S. (2008) Effect of Carbon Fiber Dispersion on the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Cement-Based Composites. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 487, 52-57.
[20] Yusof, N. and Ismail, A.F. (2012) Post Spinning and Pyrolysis Processes of Polyacrylonitirle (PAN)-Based Carbon Fiber and Activated Carbon Fiber: A Review. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 93, 1-13.
[21] Baeza, F.J., Galao, O., Zornoza, E. and Garces, P. (2013) Effect of Aspect Ratio on Strain Sensing Capacity of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. Materials and Design, 51, 1085-1094.
[22] Sugama, T., Weber, L. and Brothers, L.E. (2002) Ceramic Fiber-Reinforced Calcium Aluminate/Flyash/Polyphosphate Cements at a Hydrothermal Temperature of 280°C. Advances in Cement Research, 14, 25-34.
[23] Kakemi, M. and Hannant, D.J. (1996) Effect of Autoclaving on Cement Composites Containing Polypropylene, Glass and Carbon Fibres. Cement and Concrete Composites, 18, 61-66.
[24] Sugama, T., Pyatina, T., Gill, S. and Kisslinger, K. (2012) Self-Decomposable Fibrous Bridging Additives for Temporary Cementitious Fracture Sealers in EGS Wells. BNL-101089-2012-IR, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.
[25] Purnell, P., Short, N.R., Page, C.L. and Majumdar, A.J. (2000) Microstructural Observations in New Matrix Glass Fiber Reinforced Cement. Cement and Concrete Research, 30, 1747-1753.
[26] Manget, P.S. and Gurusamy, K. (1987) Chloride Diffusion in Steel Fiber Reinforced Marine Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 17, 385-396.
[27] Saremi, M. and Mahallati, E. (2002) A Study on Chloride-Induced Depassivation of Mild Steel in Simulated Concrete Pore Solution. Cement and Concrete Research, 32, 1915-1921.
[28] Ghods, P., Isgor, O.B., McRae, G.A. and Gu, G.P. (2010) Electrochemical Investigation of Chloride-Induced Depassivation of Black Steel Rebar under Simulated Service Conditions. Corrosion Science, 52, 1649-1659.
[29] Sugama, T., Kukacka, L.E., Carciello, N. and Galen, B. (1988) Oxidation of Carbon Fiber Surface for Improvement in Fiber-Cement Interfacial Bond at a Hydrothermal Temperature of 300°C. Cement and Concrete Research, 18, 290-300.
[30] Sugama, T., Kukacka, L.E., Carciello, N. and Stathopoulos, D. (1989) Interfacial Reactions between Oxidized Carbon Fibers and Cements. Cement and Concrete Research, 19, 355-365.
[31] Bao, Y., Ma, J. and Li, N. (2011) Synthesis and Swelling Behaviors of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose-g-poly(AA-co-AM-co-AMPS)/MMT Superabsorbent Hydrogel. Carbohydrate Polymers, 84, 76-82.
[32] Mishar, S., Rani, G.U. and Sen, G. (2012) Microwave Initiated Synthesis and Application of Polyacrylic Acid Grafted Carboxymethyl Cellulose. Carbohydrate Polymers, 87, 2255-2262.
[33] Jing, M., Wang, C.g., Wang, Q., Bai, Y.J. and Zhu, B. (2007) Chemical Structure Evolution and Mechanism during Pre-Carbonization of PAN-Based Stabilized Fiber in the Temperature Range of 350 to 600°C. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 92, 1737-1742.
[34] Ju, A.Q., Guang, S.Y. and Xu, H.Y. (2013) Effect of Comonomer Structure on the Stabilization and Spinnability of Polyacrylonitrile Copolymers. Carbon, 54, 323-335.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.