Risk Factors Associated with Anthracycline Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Pediatric Patients

DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.47047   PDF   HTML   XML   2,454 Downloads   3,397 Views   Citations


Anthracyclines (i.e., doxorubicin, daunorubicin) have significant impact on outcome in many pediatric chemotherapy protocols and therefore remain the mainstay of treatment. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for anthracycline induced cardiac dysfunction in pediatric patients. Multiple logistic regression model was applied to assess the risk factors for development of cardiac dysfunction. 110 pediatric oncology patients were available for final analysis. 75 (66%) children were males and mean age was 74 ± 44 months. ALL (n = 70, 64%) was the most common primary diagnosis followed by lymphoma (n = 19; 17%) and AML (n = 12, 11%). Daunorubicin alone or in combination with doxorubicin was used in (n = 94, 85%) patients and cumulative dose < 300 mg was used in (n = 95; 86%) children. 24 (22%) children received radiation therapy as per protocol and sepsis were observed in 47 (43%) cases. Post anthracycline, 15 (14%) children had cardiac dysfunction within a month; out of them 10/15 (67%) had isolated diastolic dysfunction, while 28 (25%) developed dysfunction within a year. 19 (17%) had pericardial effusion. 11 expired and out of them, 7 had significant cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative dose > 300 mg/m2 (p < 0.001; AOR 2.3), radiation therapy (p = 0.009; AOR 3.5) and sepsis (p = 0.002; AOR 2.6) were found to be independent risk factors associated anthracycline induced cardiac dysfunction. At univariant level use of daunorubicin alone or in combination therapy (p < 0.001, OR 7) and mode of delivery (p 0.048, OR 9.7) were also found statistically significant. In conclusion anthracycline induced cardiac dysfunction is mostly related to cumulative dose > 300 mg/m2, use of Daunorubicin alone or in combination with doxorubicin, mode of delivery, radiation therapy and sepsis. Regular long term follow-up with cardiologist is the key point for early diagnosis and therapy for a long term survival.

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Shaikh, A. , Alam, M. , Mohsin, S. , Abbas, Q. , Fadoo, Z. and Atiq, M. (2014) Risk Factors Associated with Anthracycline Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Pediatric Patients. World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 4, 377-383. doi: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.47047.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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