Share This Article:

A Review of the Production Cycle of Titanium Dioxide Pigment

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1074KB) PP. 441-458
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2014.57048    10,007 Downloads   12,322 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Titanium is a very important element for several industrial applications, being one of the ninth most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust (0.63% wt). In this work it will discuss the different mining and industrial activities involved in the production of titanium dioxide. The first step analyzed will treat about the beneficiation mining process of titanium mineral, and secondly, it will discuss the two main processes of the TiO2 manufacturing (sulphate and chloride routes). In addition, we will show different uses of the titanium dioxide pigment as filler in paper, plastics and rubber industries and as flux in glass manufacture, etc. Finally, we will show that the old wastes are currently called co-products since they were valorized, being commercialized by the Spanish industry of TiO2 production in different fields such as agriculture, civil engineering, or cement manufacturing.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Gázquez, M. , Bolívar, J. , Garcia-Tenorio, R. and Vaca, F. (2014) A Review of the Production Cycle of Titanium Dioxide Pigment. Materials Sciences and Applications, 5, 441-458. doi: 10.4236/msa.2014.57048.

References

[1] Budinski, K.G. (1988) Surface Engineering for Wear Resistance. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 420.
[2] Knittel, D. (1983) Titanium and Titanium Alloys. In: Grayson, M., Ed., Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, 98-130.
[3] Rudnick, R.L. and Gao, S. (2003) Composition of the Continental Crust. In: Rudnick, R.L., Ed., Treatise of Geochemistry, Vol. 3, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1-64.
[4] Gambogi, J. (2009) Titanium, 2007 Minerals Yearbook. US Geological Survey, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 195.
[5] Stwertka, A. (1998) Guide to the Elements. Revised Edition, Oxford University Press, London.
[6] Williams, V.A. (1990) WIM 150 Detrital Heavy Mineral Deposit. In: Hughes, F.E., Ed., Geology of the Mineral Deposits of Australia and Papua New Guinea, Monograph 14, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 1609-1614.
[7] Whitehead, J. (1983) Titanium Compounds (Inorganic). In: Grayson, M., Ed., Encyclopaedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, 131-176.
[8] Force, E.R. (1991) Geology of Titanium-Mineral Deposits. Geological Society of America Special Paper, 259, 112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/SPE259-p1
[9] Gambogi, J. (2010) Titanium and Titanium Dioxide, Mineral Commodity Summaries. US Geological Survey, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 195.
[10] Gambogi, J. (2011) Titanium and Titanium Dioxide, Mineral Commodity Summaries. US Geological Survey, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 195.
[11] Adams, R. (1994) The World Market for TiO2 Feedstocks. Minerals Industry International, 9-14.
[12] Wallis, D.S. and Oakes, G.M. (1990) Heavy Mineral Sands in Eastern Australia. In: Hughes, F.E., Ed., Geology of the Mineral Deposits of Australia and Papua New Guinea, Vol. 14, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Monograph, 1599-1608.
[13] Baxter, J.L. (1977) Heavy Mineral Sand Deposits of Western Australia. In: Hughes, F.E., Ed., Geology of the Mineral Deposits of Australia and Papua New Guinea, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Monograph, Vol. 14, 1587-1590.
[14] Barksdale, J. (1966) Titanium, Its Occurrence, Chemistry, and Technolog. 2nd Edition, The Roland Press Company, New York.
[15] Zhang, W., Zhu, Z. and Cheng, C.Y. (2011) A Literature Review of Titanium Metallurgical Processes. Hidrometallurgy, 108, 177-188.
[16] Kischekewitz, J., Griebler, W.D. and Liedekerke, M. (1998) White Pigments. In: Buxbaum, G., Ed., Industrial Inorganic Pigments, 2nd Edition, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 43-82.
[17] Ikeshima, T. (1985) Recents Developments in Titanium Sponge Production. In: Lutjerng, G., Zwicker, U. and Bunk, W., Eds., Titanium Science and Technology, DGM-Deutsche Gesellschat für Materialkunde, Oberursal, 3-14.
[18] Pourabdoli, M., Raygan, S., Abdizadeh, H. and Hanaei, K. (2006) Production of High Titania Slag by Electro-Slag Crucible Melting (ECSM) Process. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 78, 175-181.
[19] Battle, T.P., Nguyen, D. and Reeves, J.W. (1993) The Processing of Titanium-Containing Ores. In: Reddy, R.G. and Weizenback, R.N., Eds., The Paul E. Queneau International Symposium: Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, Niquel and Cobalt, Vol. 1, TMS, Warrendale, 925-943.
[20] Borowiec, K., Grau, A., Gueguin, M. and Turgeon, J. (2003) TiO2 Containing Product Including Rutile, Pseudo-Brookite and Ilmenite. US Patent No. 6531110.
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6531110.html
[21] Borowiec, K., Grau, A., Gueguin, M. and Turgeon, J. (1998) Method to Upgrade Titania Slag and Resulting Product. US Patent No. 5830420.
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5830420.html
[22] Filippou, D. and Hudon, G. (2009) Iron Removal and Recovery in the Titanium Dioxide Feedstock and Pigment Industries. Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 61, 36-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11837-009-0150-3
[23] McNulty, G.S. (2007) Production of Titanium Dioxide. Plenary Lecture. NORM V International Conference, Sevilla, 19-22 March 2007, 169-188.
[24] Rosebaum, J.B. (1982) Titanium Technology Trends. Journal of the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, 34, 76-80.
[25] Braun, J.H., Baidins, A. and Marganski, R.E. (1992) TiO2 Pigment Technology: A Review. Progress in Organic Coatings, 20, 105-138.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0033-0655(92)80001-D
[26] Allen, A. and Gergely, J.S. (1998) Reaction of Titanium Chloride with Aluminum Compound, Oxygen and Boron Oxide.
http://www.google.com/patents?id=3iAaAAAAEBAJ
[27] Braun, J.H. (1997) Titanium Dioxide—A Review. Journal of Coatings Technology, 69, 59-72.
[28] Linak, E. and Inoguchi, Y. (2005) Chemical Economics Handbook: Titanium Dioxide. SRI Consulting, Menlo Park.
[29] Gambogi, J. (2005) US Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries—Titanium and Titanium Dioxide. U.S. Government Printing Office Reston, Reston, 178-179.
[30] ASTM (1988) Standard Specification for Titanium Dioxide Pigments. In: Storer, R.A., Cornillit, J.L., Savini, D.F., et al., Eds., 1988 Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Paint-Pigments, Resins, and Polymers, American Society for Testing and Maerials, Philadelphia, 100-101.
[31] Schurr, G.G. (1981) Paint. In: Mark, H.F., Othmer, D.F., Overberger, C.G., Seaborg, G.T. and Grayson, N., Eds., Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 742.
[32] Fisher, J. and Egerton, T.A. (2001) Titanium Compounds, Inorganic. In: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
[33] Huntsman Pigments (2008) The Way forward for Titanium Dioxide? Plastics, Additives and Compounding, 10, 36-37, 39.
[34] Alince, B. (1989) Colloidal Particle Deposition on Pulp Fibers. Colloids and Surfaces, 39, 39-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-6622(89)80177-5
[35] Royal Decree 2001/1995 of 7th December 1995 Approving the Positive List of Colours Authorised for Use in the Preparation of Foodstuffs and Their Conditions of Use. BOE, Spanish Government, Spain.
[36] Meacock, G., Taylor, K.D.A., Knowles, M.J. and Himonides, A. (1997) The Improved Whitening of Minced Cod Flesh Using Dispersed Titanium Dioxide. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 73, 221-225.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199702)73:2<221::AID-JSFA708>3.0.CO;2-U
[37] Durrant, J.R., Haque, S.A. and Palomares, E. (2004) Towards Optimisation of Electron Transfer Processes in Dye Sensitised Solar Cells. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 248, 1247-1257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2004.03.014
[38] Kron, G., Egerter, T., Nelles, G., Yasuda, A., Werner, J.H. and Rau, U. (2002) Electrical Characterisation of Dye Sensitised Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cells with Liquid Electrolyte and Solid-State Organic Hole Conductor. Proceedings of Symposium P on Thin Film Materials for Photovoltaics, Thin Solid Films, 403-404, 242-246.
[39] Nabi, D., Aslam, I. and Qazi, I.A. (2009) Evaluation of the Adsorption Potential of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles for Arsenic Removal. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21, 402-408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62283-4
[40] Xu, Z., Qi, L., Shian, G. and Shang, J.K. (2010) As(III) Removal by Hydrous Titanium Dioxide Prepared from OneStep Hydrolysis of Aqueous TiCl4 Solution. Water Research, 44, 5713-5721.
[41] Lagopati, N., Kitsiou, P.V., Kontos, A.I., Venieratos, P., Kotsopoulou, E., Kontos, A.G., Dionysiou, D.D., Pispas, S., Tsilibary, E.C. and Falaras, P. (2010) Photo-Induced Treatment of Breast Epithelial Cancer Cells Using Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide Solution. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 214, 215-223.
[42] Maury, A. and De Belie, N. (2010) State of the Art of TiO2 Containing Cementitious Materials: Self-Cleaning Properties. Materiales de Construcción, 60, 33-50.
[43] Gázquez, M.J., Bolívar, J.P., Garcia-Tenorio, R. and Vaca, F. (2009) Physicochemical Characterization of Raw Materials and Co-Products from the Titanium Dioxide Industry. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 166, 1429-1440.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.12.067
[44] Council Directive 92/112/EEC of 15 December 1992 on Procedures for Harmonizing the Programmes for the Reduction and Eventual Elimination of Pollution Caused by Waste from the Titanium Dioxide Industry.
[45] Orihuela, D.L. and Marijuan, J.L. (2003) Sulfatos de hierro: Su uso agrícola. University of Huelva, Huelva (In Spanish).
[46] Directive 2003/53/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2003 Amending for the 26th Time Council Directive 76/769/EEC Relating to Restrictions on the Marketing and Use of Certain Dangerous Substances and Preparations (Nonylphenol, Nonylphenol Ethoxylate and Cement). Official Journal of the European Union, 178, 24-27.
[47] Hughes, P.N., Glendinning, S., Manning, D.A.C. and Noble, B.C. (2010) Production of “Green Concrete” Using Red Gypsum and Waste. Proceedings of the ICE-Engineering Sustainability, 163, 137-146.
[48] Claisse, P., Ganjian, E. and Tyrer, M. (2008) The Use of Secondary Gypsum to Make a Controlled Low Strength Material. The Open Construction and Building Technology Journal, 6, 294-305.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874836800802010294
[49] Hodson, M.E., Valsami-Jones, E., Cotter-Howells, J., Dubbin, A.J., Kemp, A.J., Thornton, I. and Warren, A. (2001) Effect of Bone Meal (Calcium Phosphate) Amendments on Metal Release from Contaminated Soils—A Leaching Column Study. Environmental Pollution, 112, 233-243.
[50] Fauziah, I., Zauyah, S. and Jamal, T. (1996) Characterizaton and Land Applicaton of Red Gypsum: A Waste Product from the Titanium Dioxide Industry. Science of the Total Environment, 188, 243-251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(96)05179-0
[51] Gázquez, M.J., Bolívar, J.P., Vaca, F., Garcia-Tenorio, R. and Mena-Nieto, A. (2011) Use of the “Red Gypsum” Industrial Waste as Substitute of Natural Gypsum for Commercial Cements Manufacturing. Materiales de Construcción, 62, 183-198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2011.63910

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.