Share This Article:

Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors: A Retrospective Study in the Kintampo Municipal Hospital, Ghana

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:404KB) PP. 64-69
DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.41007    3,508 Downloads   5,413 Views   Citations


Background: Hepatitis B virus is one of the transfusion transmission infectious agents of public health relevance. Its prevalence varies across the globe. Establishing the sero-prevalence of the disease is critical to informing the direction of preventive and control strategies. Objective: The aim of this study therefore was to establish the hepatitis B surface antigen sero-prevalence among blood donors in the Kintampo municipality of Ghana. Methodology: This three-year hospital based retrospective study was conducted at the laboratory unit of the Kintampo Municipal Hospital. The laboratory uses one step immunochromatographic test kits to detect the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen in the sera of blood donors. Records on blood donors were reviewed for hepatitis B sero-positivity. Results: A total of 3402 blood donors were studied, out of which 3238 (95.2%) were males and 164 (4.8%) were females. The overall sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was 9.6% (327/3402). Majority of the sero-positive donors were less than 40 years, with higher prevalence of 16.4% (35/214) in donors less than 20 years. The sero-prevalence in males and females was 9.7% (313/3238) and 8.5% (14/164) respectively. Conclusion: The Kintampo municipality has a relatively high prevalence of hepatitis B among blood donors. The probability of hepatitis B viral infection was age inclined as the youth seem to be at greater risk of contracting the disease.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Walana, W. , Hokey, P. and Ahiaba, S. (2014) Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors: A Retrospective Study in the Kintampo Municipal Hospital, Ghana. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, 4, 64-69. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.41007.


[1] WHO (2009) Hepatitis B Vaccines. Weekly Epidemiological Record.
[2] Ott, J.J., Stevens, G.A., Groeger, J. and Wiersma, S.T. (2012) Global Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: New Estimates of Age-Specific HBsAg Seroprevalence and Endemicity. Vaccine, 30, 2212-2219.
[3] Salisbury, D., Ramsay, M. and Noakes, K., Eds. (2006) Immunisation against Infectious Disease, London. The Stationary Office.
[4] Caley, M., Fowler, T., Greatrex, S. and Wood, A. (2012) Differences in Hepatitis B Infection Rate between Ethnic Groups in Antenatal Women in Birmingham, United Kingdom, May 2004 to December 2008. Eurosurveillance, 17, 20228.
[5] Kiire, C.F. (1996) The Epidemiology and Prophylaxis of Hepatitis B in Sub-Saharan Africa: A View from Tropical and Subtropical Africa. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 38, S5-S12.
[6] Ghana Immunization Programme (2010) Comprehensive Multiyear Plan (2010-2014) in line with Global Immunization Vision and Strategies, 10-45.
[7] Taylor, J.M., Purcell, R.H. and Farci, P. (2013) Hepatitis D (Delta) Virus. In: Knipe, D.M. and Howley, P.M., Eds., Fields Virology, 6th Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
[8] Tong, S., Li, J., Wands, J.R. and Wen, Y. (2013) Hepatitis B Virus Genetic Variants: Biological Properties and Clinical Implications. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2, e10.
[9] Tong, M.J., Hsu, L., Chang, P.W. and Blatt, L.M. (2011) Evaluation of Current Treatment Recommendations for Chronic Hepatitis B: A 2011 Update. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 26, 829-835.
[10] Adams, D.H. and Hubscher, S.G. (2006) Systemic Viral Infections and Collateral Damage in the Liver. American Journal of Pathology, 168, 1057-1059.
[11] Vinciguerra, M., Mazzoccoli, G., Piccol, C., Tataranni, T., Andriulli, A. and Pazienza, V. (2013) Exploitation of Host Clock Gene Machinery by Hepatitis Viruses B and C. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 19, 8902-8909.
[12] Rehermann, B. and Nascimbeni, M. (2005) Immunology of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Nature Review. Immunology, 5, 215-229.
[13] CDC (2010) Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidline.
[14] CDC (2008) Recommendations for Identification and Public Health Management of Persons with Chronic Hepatitis b Virus Infection. MMWR, 57, 9-11.
[15] Mast, E.E., Weinbaum, C.M., Fiore, A.E., Alter, M.J., Bell, B.P., Finelli, L., Rodewald, E.L., Douglas, M., Janssen, R.S. and Ward, J. (2005) A Comprehensive Immunization Strategy to Eliminate Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Part 1: Immunization of Infants, Children, and Adolescents. MMWR Recommendations and Reports, 54, 1-31.
[16] MOH-Ghana (2006) National Blood Policy for the Health Sector. 5-25.
[17] World Health Organization (2006) Blood Transfusion Safety, Geneva.
[18] GSS (2012) 2010 Population and Housing Census Final Results. 1-15.
[19] Hou, J., Liu, Z. and Gu, F. (2005) Epidemiology and Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 2, 50-57.
[20] Te, H.S. and Jensen, D.M. (2010) Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and C Viruses: A Global Overview. Clinics in Liver Diseases, 14, 1-21.
[21] Lok, A.S. (2002) Chronic Hepatitis B. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 1682-1683.
[22] Gust, I.D. (1996) Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Infection in the Western Pacific and South East Asia. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 38, S18-S23.
[23] Khan, F., Shams, S., Qureshi, D.I., Israr, M., Khan, H., Sarwar, T.M. and Ilyas, M. (2011) Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Different Sex and Age Groups in Pakistani Punjab. Virology Journal, 8, 225.
[24] Castolo, M.C., Ndez-Ruiz, L.H. and Ibarra-Robles, I.E., Rate, I.H.F.N. and Pena, J.E. (2001) Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Related Risk Factors in a Rural Community of Mexico. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 65, 759-763.
[25] Alam, M.M., Zaidi, S.Z., Malik, S.A., Shaukat, S., Naeem, A., Sharif, S., Angez, M. and Butt, J.A. (2007) Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes in Pakistan. BMC Infectious Diseases, 7, 115.
[26] Nkrumah, B., Owusu, M. and Averu, P. (2011) Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections among Blood Donors: A Retrospective Study from a Rural Community of Ghana. BMC Research Notes, 4, 529.
[27] Dongdem, T.J., Kampo, S., Soyiri, N.I., Asebga, N.P., Ziem B.J. and Sagoe, K. (2012) Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana (2009). BMC Research Notes, 5, 115.
[28] Saberton, P.J., Paez, A., Newbold, K.B. and Heddle, N.M. (2009) Geographical Variations in the Correlates of Blood Donor Turnout Rates: An Investigation of Canadian Metropolitan Areas. International Journal of Health Geographics, 8, 56.
[29] Salaudeen, A.G., Musa, O.I., Awoyemi, A.O., Bolarinwa, A.O., Adegboye, A.O. and Samuel, S.O. (2011) Community Survey on Blood Donation Practices in a Northern State of Nigeria. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 52, 21-25.
[30] Smith, A., Matthews, R. and Fiddle, J. (2011) Blood Donation and Community: Exploring the Influence of Social Capital. International Journal of Social Inquiry, 4, 45-63.
[31] Singh, B., Pandey, R.M., D’Souza, N., Anushyanthan, A., Krishna, V., Gupta, V., Chaudhary, M.M., Ganeshan, S., Jha, S., Uppal, S., Mehrara, V., Deepchand, R.D., Singh, Y., Hsia, K.M., Bhushan, S., Anand, V. and Singh, A.K. (2002) Knowlege, Attitudes and Socio-Demographic Factors Differentiating Blood Donors from Non-Donors in an Urban Slum of Delhi. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 27, 118-123.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.