Share This Article:

Arab metallurgy owes much to meteorites iron—A special regard to Damask saber

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1074KB) PP. 81-87
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.62012    5,911 Downloads   7,108 Views  
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

Ancient Arabs have recognized metallic and mineral ores, including their fluid inclusions which were still considered as a new scientific fields in the 70’s last century. They discovered metallic ores (gold, silver, copper), in inhabited areas and in delta and river crosses, using different techniques for exploration and exploitation. Metallic industry flourished during the Islamic period, silver and gold were used as currency for commercial exchanges. Meteorites were also recognized by Ancient Arabs. They collected them in the deserted areas, and used them for arms manufacturing, as sabers and daggers. The more famous of these arms is the Damask saber steel, known reputedly Jaohar. It has an extraordinary mechanical properties, and exceptional sharp cutting edge. The Jaohar blades were forged directly from fall meteorites, at temperature of 80℃, using a sophistical thermomechanical of forging, annealing to refine the steel, and giving it this exceptional quality and superelastic behavior. Meteorites using by Ancient Arabs come back to 400 years ago, as confirmed by a recent research on two meteorites samples, presented in Aleppo museum, found in Ras Shamra, and Umm El Maraa, in Syria.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Bilal, A. (2014) Arab metallurgy owes much to meteorites iron—A special regard to Damask saber. Natural Science, 6, 81-87. doi: 10.4236/ns.2014.62012.

References

[1] Al Farabi (1953) Kitab Ihsa aluloum. The book of the Sciences Enumeration and translated by A. Gonzelez. 870-950.
[2] Hakim, M.S. (1989) Al Birouni’s book on mineralogy. Pakistan Hijra Council, Islamabad.
[3] Bilal, A. (1978) Fluid inclusions in mantelic xenoliths— Geotectonic implications. Doctorat d’Etat Thesis, University of Paris, Paris.
[4] Mohamadi, A. (1983) Techniques of rooms and pillars used in ancient Moroccan mines. Arab Mineral Resources Journal, n 3, 41-50.
[5] Jambon, A. and Bilal, A. (2010-2012) Rapport de coopération. UMPC, Université de Damas sur les Météorites in Syrie, Paris.
[6] Jamil, A.K. (1983) Metallurgy of ores and mineral separation in Iraq. Arab Mineral Resources Journal, n 3, 105113.
[7] Ministry of Petrol and Metallic Resources (1974) Map occurrence of ores mines in the Arabic dorsal. Ministry Deputy for Metallic Resources, Saudi Arabia.
[8] Adly, Ab. M. A. (1979) General outline of the geology and mineral occurrences of the Red Sea Hills. Bulletin No. 30, Ministry of Energy, Geological and Mineral Resources Department, Sudan.
[9] Alomar, K. (1983) Ancient mines activities in Jordan. Journal Arab Mineral Resources, n 3, 95-102.
[10] Bilal, A. (1983) Ancient Arab legacy in the exploitation and manufacturing of metallic ores. Arabe Minerales Resources Journal, n 3, 89-94.
[11] Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) Chronique général, procédé de prolégomènes. Ibn Khaldoun.
[12] Afieh, M.S. (1983) Min activities in Egypt and Sudden during the successive civilization. Arab Mineral Resources Journal, n 3, 51-69.
[13] Al Idrissi (1099-between 1165-1186) His book Nozhat al moshtak vi ikhtrak al afak, and his maps.
[14] Al Saadi, M. (1983) Map occurrence of ancient ores mines in morocco. Ministry of Energy, Morocco.
[15] Rosenberger, B. (1970) Les vieilles exploitations minières et les centres métallurgiques du Maroc. Essai de carte historique. Revue de Géographie du Maroc, no17 et 18.
[16] Youssef, B. and Sassi, S. (1983) Metal manufacturing during the history in Tunisia. Arab Mineral Resources Journal, n 3, 133-139.
[17] Gsells (1928) Ancient mines exploitation of Northern Africa. Morocco Institute of History High Studies Congress.
[18] Reibold, M., Paufler, P., Levin, A.A., Kochm W., Patzke, N. and Meyer, C. (2006) Materials: Carbon nanotubes in an ancient Damascus saber. Nature, 284-286.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.